???????: '? ???'??. ????'???? ??????: ???? ?'? ('+'?'? Fort/Da) || slavaaa@yandex.ru || yanko_slava@yahoo.com || http://yanko.lib.ru || Icq# 75088656 || '+'?'?: http://yanko.lib.ru/gum.html ||

update 13.03.06

 

??'????? ?? ?''???? ''???'

'?? ??????

???????' ''???''

????? ? ??'?????? '. '. ?????

???-????, ?????, 2002

???????' ''???''?'? '' ''???'

Recent Philosophers

a supplement to

A Hundred Years of Philosophy

by John Passmore

Emeritus Professor of Philosophy Australian National University

Duckworth 1992

?'? 1/14

''? 87.3 ?19

'??? ?? ?'??%?? ? ???: ???????' ?'?'???-?????????? ?????'' 'Translation Project'

?? ?????? ?'? ?? ??'? ?''????? ??''????' (OSI ?' Budapest) ???''?' '?'??''? ?+%?'??' (???? ?????) ?' ????

''?? +'???????'? ?????????? ??'?'?????? ?'?? ?'???????? ??????? ???

??????, '??

?19 ???????' ''???''. ????? ? ??'. '. '. ?????. ?' ?.: ???-????, 2002. ?' 192 ?.

??? ????'?'?' ??+?? ?????'? ?????? ??? ?????? '?'? '' ''???'' ????' '''? ? ???? ???????': ??????? ?''???? ''???'. ', ?? ???? ?'??, ???'?' ? '??, '? ??'? ? ??' '?' ''???'?'????? +?'?? ? ???'?'?'??' ????'??? ???? ? ? '?? ??, ? ???? ?'? ?'? ??'? ????.

''? 87.3

Copyright 1986 by Passmore John ISBN 5-7333-0035-3 Copyright 1986 by Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd.

????? ? ??'. '. '. ?????, 2001

?????'???? ?'???'? ???-????, 2001

?????? '. ?. ????????, 2001

???-????, 2002

?'??'?'?.. 2

''? 1. '''??: ???' ? ????'?????.. 4

''? 2. ??????? ? ?????????.. 19

''? 3. ?? ?????????? ? ???????.. 30

''? 4. '-'?'??? ? '?????.. 46

''? 5. ?'?-? ? '???'?-?... 62

???????.. 85

????%??. 85

''? 1. 86

''? 2. 96

''? -. 103

''? 4. 111

''? 5. 113

?????T ???-??'.. 119

?'???'T ???-??'.. 130

 

?????

????'??.....................................................................................................7

''? I

'???: ????' ????'?????'?.......................................................9

''? II

?'???'?? ??'???.................................................................................31

''? III

?' ??'??? ? ???'?..........................................................................47

''? IV

'?????? '??'.....................................................................................71

''? V

'? ?'?'??..................................................................................94

?????..................................................................................................127

?????? ??''?......................................................................................176

????'?'? ??''?................................................................................187

?'??'?'?

'? ?'??? ?? '?' '' ''???'' (1966) ? ??'?' ????? ?'??, ?:?''??%?? ????, ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? (1957). ????? '? ? ?????'' ?''? ? '? ??'???? ????, ?? +?' ????? ????????? ???'?? ???. ?? ? '?? ? ??'??' ??'??? ????. ''? ?? ???' p ??', ? ??? ? ?'? ???'?? ?????''???????' ??'???'??. '? ???? ? ?'?? ????? ??? ? ?'?' ?+????', ? ? ?'? +''? ?????. ? ?'??? ?'??' ??+?'? ?'???%: ???????? ''???'?, ??? ????, ?'''?? ???? ??'?????'??; '?'? ??'?? -?' ???+% ? '?'?. ???? '???, ????'??? ?'? ??'??' '??? ' ???? ''???' ?'????'??'?? ??? ????????': ?''? ? ??????: ???:, ? '????'???'?? ? '??? ?? ? ????-'? ????? '???. ????? ?? '??'?? ??'??? ?'?, ' : '?? ?????'?', '? '''? ??'?? '?, '? ????'?? + ???''??'?. '?+' ??''? '??? ''???'? +?' ????'???, ???? ?????'?'? ? +?' ?????? ???'??', ? ???'?'? ???'???? ?'??? ?. ? ?? ' ???? ???'??? ? '?, '? ? ?? ?'???? ?+?? ??? ?? ??'??? ??''? ?'? +?'??, ? ????'? ?'? ???'??? ????'?'? ? ????????? ''???'. -'? ???''???, ?'???'???, ?+?? ??????? '?? ???'??': ????: ???????, ?'???? ? ?'?+??? ?' ' ????''??? ??? ': ''???'??, ??'??' '???'?''??? ??' ??'. ?'?-?+??? ????-?+??? ??'' ?'? ?????? '?? ???.

'? ?''? '????????? ''???'?'? '?'? ???????'?, +? ? ??'?, ????, ?' ?'?, '? ?? ?'???? ?? ??? ??? '?'? '' ''???'' ? ????'??? '?? ?? '?: ?'??? ?+?'?%: ??? ''???'??, ?? ????, ?'?????, ???+??. ' '??? ?'? '???????'?' ??'?? ? 1966 ?. ?? ?? ????'??? ?'? ??:??'?? ?+?%'??? ? ?????, ?????'??????? ?'?? ?', ???? '?+?'?? ???'? ??????''? ' ????'? ???%??. ????? ?' ?'?'?  ?????. ' ? ???????? '??' ??'??'?? ??''? ? ???, ???+'?????' ? 1983 ?. ?? ??  ?'??'? ?+??? ????'???'?? ?'??', ??'??' +'' ??'?'? ''???'? ???''' ??; ??'?-??????: ?? ??'

8 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?? ? ?????'??, :?'? +' ???:????, ? ?? 1966 ?. ?' ? +?'? ? ??' ?????, '? ??'????? ????'??, ????, ???'?? % ?????'? ????? ?'???.

'? ??'?? ?????, '? ?? ? '?? ?? ?'??' ???'??? ????????? ''???'???? ''?'??', ? ???? ??, ???? ??'?'?????? ?'?, ??'??? ?'??? ??+'???. ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??'?', ?' ????? ? ????? ???. ' ': ?????: ?'? '? ??%?'???? ??''??? ??'??'?. ?????? ?'? ? '?'??? ???????, ? ? ????. '1957 ?., ??????, ? ????? ?'?? ?'????? ''???'? ? ???: ??'???'????? ? ?+'? ++'???'??? ?'?????'? +'' ? ?????? ?%?. ??? ''???'' ?????'?' ??'? ? ?+ ????':, ?????'?? ???%:?? ???? ??'???''????? ?????????. ?????'??? ???'?????? ????' (PhD) ?????'?' ???????'?? ??'? ??'?'? ??''??. ???'???, :?'? ? ???? ??''??? ? ?''? ? ??????: ???:, ? ?????? ? ? ???:, ??????' ? ???: ++'???' ? ??'??, ?????'??? ?? ????: ?: ??+??' ??''? ? ?????? ???, ?'? ?????'??' ?? ???+''.

???'??? ????+?'?? ????' - ???? ??''? ?' ??? ?? ?'?'????'. ? ????? ? ? ??? ?'??? +???%? ???+'???'? ? ???+?'???? ????'????? ?? ?? '?' '' ''???'', ?'??? ? 'Pelican Books'. ' ??'??%? ??? ? ?'? ?'? ?????'?' ??''? ? ????? ? '?? ??. ? ???'? ????' ?'?? ??'? ??? ''?'????, ? ??'???? ? ??? ??''??? ?? ? ???????? ? '?? ??, ''?'????, ??'??? ???'?''??? '? ?????'??; ?' ?? ????' :?????, ? ?????? ???? ?'? ????'?'?'? +??' ??'????.

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

??+?? ???'? 1984 ?. '.?.

''? 1. '???:????' ????'?????'? 9

''? 1. '''??: ???' ? ????'?????

'????, ? ??'?'??%?? ? '? ????'??, ????+??? ?? ???:???'??%? ??? ?'??? ?' ?? ???? ???'??? ???'? ?'? ???????? ??'?-??????? ''???'??? ??? * ??'??, ?? ? '?  ???? ????'?'? ???'?????? ?+???? ?'?' ??? ?' ?'??? ??''? ???????. ?? ????? ???%: ''???'??, '? ????? ??????': ???+'? ?' ?'??'? ? ??'??' ? ?'?? ?'? ? ? ??' ?''??? ???'??'?. '?' ??????? ???, ??? '???'??' ???????' ''???'?? ?????? ? ??? ??'??? '??', +''? +' +?' '??'?, ?? ???? ' ?'?'? +' '?+????? ?????????? ?''?. ?????? ??+:?????'? ?'???? +?''????? ???:??, ? ??? ? ?+%?? ?+?? ????????? ''???'???? ??', ??? ? ??????'???? ? ?'???''??? ?????: '?: ?'???''??? ?????: ''???': ?????'?? : +?' ?????+??. ? ???''??? ????'? ?????'?? ? '??, +??'? ''???'? ?+'' '?'??? ? ': '%:, ??'??' ??'?? ?' ??, ???''??? :?'? +' '?, '? ? ???? ?'??? ???, ??'???'??' ? ??? '?'? '' ''???'', ?? ?? ??? ??''???? +??? ?'???? ??+'??'? : ? ?'???? ??'??.

??? '?? ????? ??? '? ?+%'? +?'??, ? ??'?'??? ? ??'?''. ? ? '?'??? ????'?? ?????'??? ?'??'? ?+??? ??'?-???????? ''???', ?? ? ??? ???'??'? ???'???''??? ????'???? ? ?':??' ??? '?: '??? ?????': ???? ? ?????? ?+'?'?, ?? ???'??'???, ''???'??? '???, ?''?, ''???'? ?'? ''???'? ?'?'???': ???. ? ? 1957 ?. '??? ???:?? ????? ??'?' ?????'???: ??? ?'?? ??''???? ''???'?, ? ?????? ? ?+ ??''? ''???' ??'??': ???.

'????, ? ???' ???'????' ???'''? ????+?? ??? ? '?'??? +''? ???'??'?'?, ?? ???????'??? ?? ??+:????. ??'??, ? ?': ??'???': ?????'??? ?+'?'?: ''???'?'????? +'' ??'???'', ??'??' ??'???'?? +?'??? ?'???. ' ''???' ???' ? ?? ???  ??:??' ?? .?.??, ? ''???' ????''.' .??-', ? ''???' ?'?? ?' ? .'??. ?? ? ?? ???' '?, ? ???? ?? ???'????'??' ''???'' ??????'??' ??? ??'? ???? ? ': ?+'?'?: ''???'?'?????, ?'?? : '?'?'??'?', ?????'??? ??'??': ? ????'?? ? ??? '?'? '' ''???''.

'?' '???, ???? ?? ?+?%'?? ? ?? ????'???'? '??, '?, ?? ???'?, ? '?? '?? '??, '?+' ??'??? ??? ??'?????'? ??'?? '''???'???? '???'. -'? '? ???? ???''??'????'? ? ???? ''???' ???'. ??' ???????' ?' ?+?' ?+%: ????'?

10 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???', '?: ?? '??'??'????', ? '? '?+' ???'? ?'???'??? ???'????? ???????, ????''? '????? ?''?? ???'??': ?'?????, '.. ??'???'?, ??'??'?? ' ?? ???'??'? ?????? '  ???'''? ????????, ????, ???????? ' ?'???? ???'?. ?''? +''?, '?? '?'?'??':' ???????? ''???' +''? ?????????? ?????'????? '''? ? ?????'?? ? +?' ????? ''???'??? ?+'?'??.

???? ?'? ? '?. ?'???'' ???', ??''? ??? +?'?? ? ??????'?? ??'?''??? ????'?'??'? '?????, ?'?? ''???' ???', ??? ' ??''??: ?+'??. ??, ? 1970- ???' ????? ?+?' ????? ?+????': ??? ?'' '???? ?????'???'' (1971). ' ?'?? ??? '?? ?', ?????? ?'???? ?+???????? ???? ? ''???'???? ?'?, ? '?'??? ?????'?', ?? ?'??' ????'?'? ?????'???'?, ?? ?''??? ????'???', ? ? ?? ???'?''??? ???'?'. ?'? ??, ? 1978 ?., ???' '?? ???' ???? ???? ''??' ('Lying'). ???'?? +?'?? ? ?'+??'?' ? ?'?????, ?? ? ??%?? ?'????? ? ''???'. ???'?''???? ???????'? ???? ? ??+???'' ???+% ? ?''''??'? ?'? ?'?'??': ??+???''? ????? ???'? ? ????.

% +?' ???''??? ?' ?? ????? ??, ?' ???'?'? ? ?? ???': ???'????': ???'''? ?' '?, '? ''???'' ?' ??'? ? '? ??'?' ??'??' '?', ?? '???, +??'', ????? ?????%? ???', ????' ???????. ??'??' ???? 1960-: ?????, :?'? ????'??? ?'??''??? ???' ?? ??', ??  ??'?' ???' ?+? ??' ???'??'??. '??'????, ??? ''???'', ??? ? ?''?? ???? ?''?, ?'???? ? ??'?' ????+?' '?' ?+'?' ?'???? , ?? ??%?'??, ? ?'', '? ''???'? ?' ??-'+? ??'???'??' ???'. '?' +'?? ? ???? ???? '?'?? ??' ??' ?'? ?????? ??'?? ?? ??????? ?+?????, +??, ?? ????'. ????? :??'???, '? ??' ?? ?'?? ?'?', '?, ?'? ?'?, ?? ?':??' ??? ''???' ?????' ???? ?? ?', ??, ?????, ? ?? ''???'. ' ?'?? ?? ?? ???'? ?????'?? ???'???, ??'???'?? ??'????? ?? , ?? ??', ?????+?'???' ??'??? ?'?', '? ''???'? ?'??' ????'?'? '?? ?+???, '?+' ? ? '?: ???: ??':, ?? ''???'? ???' ??''?, ?? +'' ????? ?' ??+:?????' ??'? ???'' ?? ???'??? ???????. '???? ?'??? ???'??? 1970- ???' ?'' ???''?? ????'?? '?: ??????: ???, ?? ???' 'Philosophy and Public Affairs' ('?'???'? ?+%?'???' ?'?????', ? 1971 ?.), ? ??'???? ?'?'?? '? ?????? ''???' ? ??????: ??''?. ' 1980- ???' ? ???'? ?'''?'?'???? ??+'?, ???'??? ?'???'??? ? ''???' ?? ? ?%????? ?'''?'?'???? ??> ??'?' ????? ??????'??? ?+%?'? ???'' ?? '???'???? ''???'' ' ?? '?? ?'?'??'? ??'?, ?? '''???'?

''? I. '???:????' ????'?????'? 11

???''. ?? ?????'? ???'??? ??????, ???%??, ????''????? ????? ''???'' ?'???'?? '?? ?????'?''??': ???''?? ?? ???????'? ???+'?? ??''? ' ????' ???'??? ''? '? ? ?????: ????': ???':. ?? +?'?? ? ??'???' +'' ???'?, '? ??' ? ???????: ?? '?????''??'? ??'??'? ???+'?? ??' ?':?? ??? ''???'.

' ???? ?? ????+??? ??''????'? ??'' ?'?'? '???'???? ''???'?', ? ????? ?????????'???, ?' ?????? ?'??'''?. ??, ??, ?? ???? ?'????', ? ?????? ?'?', '? ?'??', ???% ?? '???'???? ''???'', ?'???? ?'? ????'??'???'?? '?''?? ? ?'?-?? ??????????, ?? ???? ??+?'???'?, '? ????: '???', :?'? ?' ''???' ??' ?'???? ?+???????': ???????. ?'  ? ??'??%? '?? ?'?? '? ? ??'?'?? ?????, '? ? ??'???, '? ?? ? ?' ?'????? ? ''???', ??'??? '? ?+?' '%''??? ?+???????? '???'??? ''???'?' ?' ??'??? ': ??'??, ?? ''???'' ???'?? ???+'?? ?????%? ???' ??????' ?''?? ??????' ? '??? ?????, ?' '?'?? ??'?'?? ???'???? ?'???, ??'???, ?? '????, ?'??'?? ??'?'?? ??'??%?? ????'?????. ?? ???'? ? ?'? ??'?? ?????? ? ?? ???'?' ?????????, '? ' +?' ??'??' ??????', ??'??' ????'???'?? ? ?'?? ??'??, ???? ?+??? ? ???'?'??' ???'????? ?%? ?'? ????????? ''???' 2.

' ?'? ????? ?'?? +?' ?'???. ''?? +?? 1960-: ????? +?'?? ?????' ? '??, ?? ?? ?????? ? ??'??? ???'? ''??? ????? 1930-: ?????, ???? ?' ?? ?????+?'???' +?' ??????? ??????'???? ????? ? ??? ??'?-??????: ''???'??. '??'????, ????? ???'??: ?'??? ?'''?? ?' ?????, ???????'??????? ? 1930- ???'; ? ?': +?'????'? ???: ?????? ?? +?'?? ? +'' ???'??? ???? ? ?'????? ???''??? %''? ???'??? ???. ' ???'?''????' ???? ?????'' ????? ?'?'?? ?'??' ?' ?' '??'???? ????'. ?????, ?? ?? ??'?', '????? ? ???:??' ?????? ??''??'. (-'? ??? ???? ???? ? ?'???? ??'?-????????? ??; ????  ?'''??? ???? ??'?'?? ?'??'? ??+%? ?'? ?'???????? ???? ?????'???? ??.) ??????:?? ????????'? ????? +''? '?  ?????, ?? ????????'? :??'??'?; ??'? ??? ?'+?'? ?+ '?????' ?? ????? '?????'?. ???'? ????????'? +'' ????: ?' ?????'????? ????? '-???????-''???'??: ???????', ?????': ? 1844 ?., ?? ???+'?????': '?? ? 1932 ?. ????' ??????': ? ??'???? ?'? ? 1959 ?., ?? ?'???? ????????????? ?????, ???????? ?? ??? '? ?'?'???-???. '????'???? ???? ?'? ?????' ? ?????????'? ?????? ? '?, '?+' ???'? ?'''?'?'??'? ?? ?'?? ?'????'????-

12 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'? ?'? 1960-: ?????. ?? ???? ? ?'???' ?'?'???? ?'?'?' ', ? ?'' ???' +?' ??'?'? :??'? 3.

??'? ? ??'?'' ????? ???' ? 1970- ???' ???? ??'?? ? ??'?-??????: ''???'??: '??'?'': ('? ?'? ?????'???%: ???'''? +''? ???????? ? :??'???), ?? '?, ?? ???? ???, ? +??' ??'?? ????? ? ???'???%? '??. ????? ?+?' ?'???'????? ???'??'?? ?+?' ????? ??'?'???'?? ? ????? ? ??''???? ''???', ''???' ?????'? ???'???? ??'???? ??'?, ?? ?? ?' ?+'?' '' ???'? ??: ?'???: ?'????. ???? ''???'?'???? ? ?'' ???? ????' '???? ???'??'?? ' ?''?, ??? % ???? ?''?'?? ? ????+??' ??' '???', ?????%??' ?'????? '???, '?  ???? '???'?''??? ?' ? ???'. -'? ???? ? ???''???, ?''??, '? ?? ???? % ??' ??'?'??: ?+?' ?? ?'? '??. ' ???'?''????' , ?+?' ?'?'???? ??'? ? ?? ?'''???', ?'???????, '? ''???'? ?' ?'? ??'?? ????'??? ? ? ???? ??'? '??? ???' ???, ??'??? ?' ? ?? '??  ?'????, ???, ???'??? ??'???? ?'??'??? ???? ? '????? ??'??' (1845?' 1846, ????' ??'???'?? ???+'??????? ? 1932), '?' ???? ? ??'???? '?+?'.

?? ? ?? ? '? ?????-'? ???? ?????'???? ''???'? ????', ?? ?'? +''? ????? ? ??? '?'? '' ''???'', ?+?%??? ? -??'??? '???. ???'?? ?????'' ?? % ?????'?' '? ?''?. ?? ???? ???? ?????'' ?? ? ??'?-???????? ??, '? ? ????????? ???'??' (??? ?'??' ?'???'??? ??'???%??? ?+?'??? ?'??? ??'????'????? ?????) %?' ?????'???? ''???'? ? ??? ??', ?'? ????%??? ? ?:', '?'? ' ???+:?. ?: ?+?'', ????? ??'??'?? ?? :??'??, ??' ? ??'??%?? ????'????? ? +?'?? ?'????, ?, ???, ?'???' ?+?'' ? ??? ??', ? ?' : '??? ??'?'?? ???'??'??? ' ?''?.

? ?'???'?? ???''??? ????'?, ???? ?'?' ??'?? ? ?? ????%? ?'?? ??' ?''??? ?? ????''???? ??'?? ????:???%?? ??? ? ''???'??: '??'?'': ?? ?????? ? '?? ?????, ?'? ??'???? ?? ?'?' ??'????. ?? ?'??' % ??-'? ??+?'? ?? ?'??? ??????. ' 1957 ?., ???? ?'?'? ???? ?? ??? '?'? '' ''???'', ??'?-??????? ''???'??? ?? +'' ????''??? ?+?'???, ??'?'?, ????''?, ? ?? +''? ??? ?'? ''???'??: ??????: ???, ? ??' '??? ?'???''??? ??????. '??''' ????'? ? ????'??? ? ?'???'? ?'? ??+'???': ??? ?'??''??? ??''??? ??'?'?? ?''?, ???'???? ? '??? ???', ?? ??'????, ?? ? ?'?' ?? ?':?? ?'????? ??? ??? ? 1966 ?., ?'??? ? ??' +?'?? ???'??? '?:?''? ??? ?+'?'?' ? '?? ??, ? ???? ?'? +''? ?????? ???. ??, '? ????-'? +''? '?? ?+?'??? ??????, ????''??? ? ?'??? ???-

''? 1. '???:????' ????'?????'? 13

? ? ?????? ???, ? 1980- ???' ?' ??? ?+?? ?????'?? ?????, ??? +' +?'??'? ??? ? +''?, ?' ?' ?? ?''?? ??'??????.

'??'????, ????+?? '?+??? ??????? ??'????????? '??, ??'?? ??+'?? ??' ? ??+?? ??'? ?????, ?+'????? ? ??'????. '? ?'? ?'??? ??' ?? ????????? ????'?? ??'?'? + ?????. ? '???, '? ???' ''???'', +?'??? ?'?, ? ?' ?? ?' ????'?, ???'??? ???? ?'?' ':???? '?+?????, '? , ?? ???'?'?'???%? ?+?' ? ???, ?+?? ?'????'??? ?? ????? ???. ?'?, ?? ??' ?+?', ??+?''??? ??'?'?? ???'?%? ?'? ???. ?? ? ?? ????? ''???'?, ??'??': ? ??? ???? ??' +' ???'???'? +?' ?????+???? ?????'???, ?' ?'????' ?'??' ??'? ? ?????:. ?? ?? ??'?? ?????? +' ?? ?????????'??': ?????.

????, '? ?''?? ??'????????? ??'?? ????'??? +?'??. ????? ? ????? ?'? ?? ?' ??????? ?'?. ???? ??'?? ?'''?? ? '?'??? ???? ?'???, ?? '?, '? ?? ?????' ? ???? '? ??? ??????' ????, ?'?' ???', ??????' ??????. ????? ?'? ????:??' ? ''???'. ??? ?????? '?????, ? ???, ????''?, ?? ???:???' ???' ?? ''???' ? '??, '? ?'?'??': ???'?. ''????? ?????'????? ' ???'?????'????? ?'??? ?''??, ? ?????, ?????'?, ???? ' ''???'? ??? ? ??'??? ?'? ?' ?'?''? ?' ???'?? ???. ' '???: ????'??'???? ???'', ??? ???? R?-?? ?+???, ???'??'??? ??'??? '??? ??'??' ??? ? ??????, '? ? ??' ? ?????'? ?+ ???????? ????'? 4; ?'? '???????? '?'???'??'?'' ??'? ???? '?, '? ?''?? ???, ?' ?'??? ??'??? ?'???? ? ?'?'? ??%?; ? ''??+?'? ?'??? ?+?'' ????? ??''?, ?'? ??'??': ?'????? ???:????? ?'?' ??:? ??' ???+?? ?'????'?????'? ?.?.????? ?'????? ???:?? ? ''???' ??? ??'??' ?'???'?? ???'?, '? ?'? ?'??': ???+'? ''???' ??? ? ??' +''? ???? ????, ???? ?? ? ???'??.

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

14 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??? ' ???????? ''???'?, ??'??? ??'??'?? ?+?'??? ?'???.

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

? ??' +''? ???: ?????? ? '??, '? ''???'? '???, ''???'??? '??? ???'?'??' ?'? ''???' ?' ??'??? ': ?'??, ???? ''???'??? '??? ???'???? ??'????'?? ? ''???' ?'?, ' ? ???? ????, ?? ?' ??', ?' ? '????'?. ' ???'?''????' , ???? ??'? ??'??, ????, ?? % ?????'?' ?''?, '? ''???'??? '??? ?' ?'? ????'? ''???'?. ? +??' ??'?? ????? ??' ? ???'???%? '??. ????? ?'?'??? '??? ?? ?? +?' ????'?%? ?? ??'?'?? ?? ?'?' ?'?'???. (?'??', ?????, ????'?, '? ??? +'' ?'?'???, ?? ???? '??? ???' ???.) ????????, ?''?? ''???'' +?'?? ? ?'????'?? ? '???'???? '??? ? ???+??? ? ?'+??'??' ?? '????? ???, :?'? ? ?'??' ?? ''???' ?+'?????? ?'? '? ???'??' ????. ?? ??', ? ????????? ??'?-???????? ''???' ?''? ?''??? ? ?????? ?%? ????''??? ???????'? ?????'?? ? ??????'? '????? ??'??; '???? ????'' ??'??' ?? +?'?? ??????'???. ?? '? ???? ???? ???' ??+?? ?? ?'??. ?? ? ?? ????? ''???'' '?' ?????? 'Journal of Symbolic Logic' ('-???' ????'???? '???'), ???? ??'?????, ?? ??' ? : ?'??:, +'' ???? 'Journal of Philosophical Logic' ('-???' ''???'???? '???'). ??'? ?''?? ''???'' ???'???' ????'' '????: ??'?, ?????': ? ????'' ???'''?, ????? ?' ????'' ?'? ?'?' ? ????'??'? ++??'???, ? ?'??'? ? ???'??? ''???'??: ?'?????. ??''?? ''???'' ??''?'?? ? ?'?'???? '????, ?? ? ???'?? ? ?' '? , ?? ??? +?'?? ? ??'?? ?'?'???; ?? ?'?'???' ???? ??'?+''??, ?' ??????''??.

???'???, ???'??? ? ????? ?'???? ''???'???? ??', ???? ??'?'? + ????? ???'?? ? ??' ?'?'???? '???. -

''? 1. '???:????' ????'?????'? 15

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q ?'??' /?, ?', ?? ???'?, ? ?+?????'?? '????'? ?. ?? ?'? ??? ? ?', ??' +' ??, ?' ? ??'?'' ????'? ????+?': ?'?'??': ??'?? ???'?? '????? ??'?, ??'??? ??'?'?? ?????, '????, ???????? ?'? ?'???? '??? ???? ???+????? ?' ????: ?????%: ??'?? ??????? ? '??'.

????? ? 1970- ???' ???-'? ??'?'?? '?????, ???'? ?? % ???'?'??%: ??????'??, ?'' ?:??'? ?????''???''???? ????+??? %'?. ?? +''? ????'?? ?????'?, '? ???? ?''? ???'??? '????, ??'??? ? +?'???? ?' ?'?? ? ?' ?+?????? ?'? ??? ???'?'? ????'?'? ???????; ?? ? +'' ?+??' ? '??, '? ??????', ????+?' ??????? ?'?'???? ??'? (???? '????? ?'??'??? ?'??' ?'????'? '?+??? ??????? ?? ? ?? ?'??'???), ???? '+? ?'+???'? ? ?'????? ?? ? ??% ???: ???'??'??, '+? %%'? ?? ???? ? ??'??%?? ???????.

16 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'?????? ?'?????? '???, ?? ?'???' ?? ?'' ? ??? ''??'?? '??? ???'???' (1982), ??' ?+? ????+?? ????, ??'??'? ?+?' ???????+'? ?'? ?'??'??? ???' ??'??. -'? ???????+'? '? ?'?:? ?????'?????, '? ???'???' +?'???? ?'? ???????? ???'. '??'? '??? '?+' ?'??'? ???????+'?, ??? ?????%' ?? ??? ??'? '???'???? ??'?????': ???????, ???'??%:, '? ???? ???????+'? ???'???? ???:%??', ????? ? '?? ??????, '? '?' ??? ?'?:??? ? ??'? ???'' ' '? ???????+'? ?' '????', ???' ????'' ??'??' '?+' ???? '???????? ? ???'???'?? ? ?? ????'? ?'???'. ??? '? +?'??? ?'? ???' ?'? ?+%?'???': ??? ??+'?'?? ''?????'? ?'??''??'? ????'??? ??????'? ???'? ?'???' ?' ???'?? ?? ????' ??? ? '?' ??????%? ????: '?',' '?, ???? ''???'' :?'?' ?'??'? ??+? ? ????-'? ''???'???? ??????, ?? ?'? ??+??' ? '??????? '??'?''?????' '???, ? ?:??? ??? ? '?'??????' '??????-???'?????? '???, '? ???'? +' ? ?????. ' ?'' ?' ?'?????, ?'?????? ?'??'??? '??? ? ??'??' ?'?'??? ?' '???': ? ??? '???'?, ??'??? '?+?''', ??'??? ???'?''??? ????'?' ?'''? ?????'?' ??????? ?' ??+??':.

??'??, ???? ?'?????? '???'???? '???, ??, ?????, '.?. '?? '??', ? ???????' ???''? ????'?'? ?'?????? '????, ??+''?? ???'??', ???'?? '??? ' '??? ???'??? ???????? ? ?+?%? ????? ? ???'?'' ?? ?'????' ?????'+???? %'?? ???'?'???? '??? ????. ' ?': ???: ???''?: ?? ?:??' ?????'???, '? ??'?? ?'??' ???????, ? ??'??': ??'??'?'?? ???? ??? ??+:???'? ?????'?, ?+?''??'? ????'??'?, ??? ?????? ???'?? : ?'??'?'?, ??? ??????? ?'?'? ? ?: ?'? '???' ??'??': ????''??? ?'?????? '???. ???? ??'?? ? ???'''?? ??+?''? '???'????? '????', ???'??%?? ?? ? ????. ????? ?? ?' ????'??? ??'?'?' ???????????'? ?'?'??' +?'??' ?'?????? '??? '? ??'???, ???? ?? ???'?? ? '??? '?'????? ??'?' ?.?. '???. ???'????, +??'????, ?????' ?'?????? '???? ? ?'?'???? ????' ?' '?? ??'?. ?? ?? ??????' ???', ??? ??+?'???' ??????', ? ?'???' '?' ??????, '? ???'??, ??% '???? '? ?-'', ???'??? ?'????? ??'?, ?'' ??+?? ??? ?????? ???'?? 6.

' ????: '???, ??'??? +'' +' +?' '??? ???? ? ??? ?+'??? ???'??? ???'???? ?'?????, ?.?????? ? ? 1956 ?. ???'?' ??'?? ?+????? '?????? ??'?', ???? ???? ?'?'??'? ????'? '?'????? ??'??' ?'?????? ?? ????' ?'?????? '???, ? ????''?????% ?'??? ????'?. ' ???'???% ???' -..????-

''? 1. '???:????' ????'?????'? 17

????? ?.'.''???? ? ??'?????'? ? ????? ?'??? ? ????? ?'?? ??'?' +'' ??+?'? '?'??'?? '???', ?????????'? ?+??? ????'?'??? ? : ?+?' '''??? ?'??'??' (1975). ?? '? ?'???'???, ?????? ?'??'??? ?'??' ?????, ?' '?'??? ?' (?????? ?'???'??'? ?'???) '?? ???-'? ?+??? ????' ???? ? ??????'. ''???? ''???'??? ?'???, ??'? ??%?'???'? ??? ???? ??? : ???????. (''? ?'??'??? '??? ? ?''?? ???''??'? +''? ?'????'???? ??????'? ???+???' ??????? ? ???:.) ????+??? ???? ???? +?' '???'??'? ?+??? ????''? ? ????%?? '?+%: ?????':'. ??'??? ?????? ? ?'?+?????, ?'? ?? ?+ ??'?, ? +?' ?????? ??'?' ?' ?+ ?+??'??'??, ? ???'???%? ??'?'? ??' ? ????'??? ???'?????'??': ????'??: ? ???'?' R??? ????, ??'?? ?'? '??????'????'?' '????. ?????'???' ? ?'?? ?? '?+???? ? ??'? ?'??'?? ??'??' ??????' ?? ?'?????, '? ?'?'???? ??'?. ?' ??'?, ? ?????, ?????, '? ? ?': '???: ? ??' +''? ?'??'?, '?+'/? ?-/? ???' ??'???' '?+? ?????'??? ?'+???? ?'??'?? q, ?????'??? ?? ? ??' ?+%? ??'?'???? ???????. (???? ?? '? q ??'???' q'). ?' ? +??? ?+?'? ?? ?'??' ???' ?????? ? ??'?'' ?????? ??'??? ?????? ? '??, ????'?? ' ?????'??'? ????' ? ??'?'' ????, ??'??' ??+:???? ???' ? ?'?????? '????, ???+??? ?' ??'?, '? ?? +? '?????????? ????? ? ??'?? ?????? ?'????? ??'? ?'??' ???'? ??????'?'? ??'''??'? ?''??? ?? '? ' q, ?-/?, ?'???''???, q', ?? ? +??? ??'??? ?????? ? '??, ??'?'?? ' '?'??'???'?' '???'??'? ????'?, ?''?'? ?' ????'? ?'??? 7. ????? ? ?'??? ????'? ?' ???'??? ????'?'? ? ?????:, ?'????': ''???'?, ??'??' ? ???'??' ? '?, '? ?'?'???? '???? ???? ???????? ??'?'? ?'?'??, ?? ??'???, ?'??????? ???? ??????'?. ????? ? ?''?: ?' ?+'?'? ? ?'????? ????'??'??? ?? ? +??'.

??%?'??' ??'? ????: ?+'?'?, ?? ?'???'?? ?? '???? ??????'? ???? ??? ''???'? ?'? '???? ?'''?'?'???? ??''????'. ???'? ??'''??? ??'?, ???? ???????? ? ?'??? ????????? ''???', ??????? ??'????? * ''???'?? ??? '?'?'????? '???''???. ?? ????' (?? ?'???? '??) +?'?? ??'', ?????%??' ????????? ?????'?? '??'???? +?'??, ??'??' ???'?'??' ??' ??'???? ???? '??. ?? '???''? ??'?? '?? ?+??? ????????'????'?, ?? ?? ?????', '???????? ??? ?+%? ''???'??? '???? ??????? ??'??????' ? ??' ????????? ?'?'. ?'??' ???????'?, '? ?? ???? ?+??? ?

* ??? +''? +' ??'? '.'???''? ??'??-???? ''???'??, +? +?'???? ?'? ???? ''???'???? ????' ?? ????+?'' ? ???: ?????'':. ?' ???. ???.

18 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??'?'?? '''???'?? ?????'' '??? '?, ??'??'? ???+'?' ? '??? XIX ?? ?'? ??'????? ?'??'? ??'? +''? ?+?????? '???, '? ???'???? ???? ?'??' ??'? ? ?''?, ?' ???? '???? ??? '''???'' ?????'' ?????????' ???? ??'?? ?''? ?? ?'????' '????: ??'??'??. '???''? ?'? ?' ?'???; ?? ??? ': ?????: ?????'?': ''???'??, ??'??' ???'?? ?' '?' ??????? ''???'?'???' ? ????? ?????????? ???. ????? ??'?-?????? ''???'' ???'?'?? +' ? '?, '? ?'?? ''???' ?'??' '? ??'?+'?'??? ? ????. ?? ? ?? ??? ???? '?????' ?? ???+?? ????''??': ???'????, ?????'????? ??????'??, ?'? ??'??': ? ??%?'???'? ?'? ??? ''???'? ????''???? ????? ? ?????? ? ????:??? ?. -' '??? ?+????'?? ? '?'??? ? '???''?, ?? ? '?: ??': ''???'??, ?? ??????, ?????, ???+??, ?'' ???? ????'?'??'? :??'? ????????? ?????'??.

?? ????? ??, ??? ''???'' ??? ?? ?''??? ????? ??'?????'??, ? ? ?????'???% ???'''? (???+??? ? ???? ? 1925 ?? 1960 ??.), ???'??'?? ? ?'????? ''???'?? ? '??, '? '??'??? ?'?'????? ? ??' ?????? ?'????? ? ''???'', '? ??? ? '?? '?? ?? ?' ?? ?'? ''???', ? ???? ''???'' ??? ????' '???? ?'???'? ?+%?? ?'???'??? ???': '???. ??-??  ?'???', '? ? ??%?'??' '???? ?'? ??? ''???'? ?????, ?'??? ?' '? ''???'? '? ?'? '?????'? '?'. ' '? ?????-'? ???? ??? ????? ''???'' ?' '?? ??'?'? ??'????, ?? ?:?+: '???+??, ?' ?'??'?? ??'? ?????+?? ? ????'???'?-???? ' ???'???? ?:??. ?''???, '? ?' '?' ?'??' ??'?'? '??'???? '?. ' 1970-  ???', ?? ?' ???? ?, '?? ?'???? ? ?'?? ? +''? ???+'??%?. ? ???+?? ???, ???'??? ??'???? ''???'' ????' ??'?' ????'? ??? ???? ????'?'??'? ???????, ??'?? ? ?'???? ??????? ?? ? ??% ?'????? ? : '??, +'' ??????? ? ????+??': '???':, ? '?'??? ? ?'???? '? +?'??. ????'??? ??:?'???, '??? ?'???, '??? ?'?'''??': ??? ?' ???+??? ? ??? ? '????'? ?'''?'??' ?' ?? +???' ?'?? ?????'?'?' ???' ???????' ''???'? ??? ???? ???'??'???. ?'???'' ???? ?+??? ? ??'?' + ????? '? ???, ?? '??????'?? ''??' (1960) ?'???-?????'???? .?.'??+??? ' ''' ???' (1966) ????'?'?? ?? '????. '??' ??? ''???'? ??'???? ????? % +?' ???'???'. ??'?, ?? ? ? ??', ????? ''???'' ??'?+??' +' ?' ??? ???'???'? ????? '???''?, '? ? ?? ? ????????? ''???' ?'? ??'? ?+'?'?, ? ?'?+??? ????? ??'??': ????' ???''?'? '?? ', ?'? ?' :???? ??? ?? ?'?'?, '? ' ???????.

''? 1. '???:????' ????'?????'? 19

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

-' ?? ?? ''???'?'????? ?????'?' ??%?'???'? ?? ?: ???. ?'???'?, ? ?'' ?' ???, ? ??'?'?? ??'? ?'''?'?'??'? ???+%?'???. ? ?'? ? ????'? ? '??, '? ''???'', ?? ??', ??' ???? ??'?. ?: ?????? +?'?? ?????' '?, '? ?? ??' ??': ''???'??: ????, ??' ????'?'?? ? '??, ? ? ???'?' :???? ?'?:? ''???'?'????. ' 1983 ?. ? '?????? ???'?? ?? ''???' ? ????' ?''??' ?????' ??'???? ?? '?  ? ????' ? :?'' ????'?, ? ???'?? ???? ?????' ??'???? ' ???? ?? ?'? ???'??, ? ???? ?+????' '?', ?' ???'? ?? ???? '?'??? ??'????, ????'?'?' ?+%? ?'??. ' ???'?' ? '??, '? ??'? ? ??' '?' ''???'?'????? +?'?? ? ???'?'?'??' ????'??? ???? ? ? '?? ??, ? ???? ?'? ?'? ??'? ????.

* '??%? ???'? ?'? ''??+?'?, ?'??'???%? '??? ???'???? ??? ???, ???? ? 1660 ?.; '??'?? ? ?+%?'? ?''?? ?+?' ??'?'? ??? ?'? ?????. ?' ???. ???.

20 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'?? ? ???'?, '? ???? ??:???' ?????'? ????? ?'?????. ??? ???? '?????? ''???' ?????'?' ?'?? ? ''???'?'????? ? ?''???? ?''. ???? '?? ??'??? ??'?'?? ''???' ?'? -? '????, '???? ???? ''???'???? ??? ? ?''? ? ???????'? ???? '???? ?? ?? '? ?'? '?????????' ?????, '?'????' ? ??? ???:???% ?'???. ?? ??? ''???'', ?? '????'? ??????, ?????'?' ??'???'??? ?'??? ?? ???, '??? ?? ? '??? : ?'?? ??? ???'? ? ???. ????? ??'?-??????? ''???'? ??''?? ??' ??'???'?? ????'???, '? ' - ?''?, '? ' - ?'???? ' ?'?????. ' '???  ?'? ?+?'?' ? ?.

' '? ????: '' '?'?'??? '???''? ?'??' ??' ???+????? ??? ???: ''???'??, ????? ''???'?'????? ? ?????????? ???. ?? ? 1960- ???' ?????'?'? ?? ?'??'' ???? ?'? ?+? ???:  ???'?'?????? ???, ''???'??, ?????, '??'??, ??-???? ????: ??'??'??. '?' '???, ?? ?'??'' ???, ????, ??'? , ?? ????? ??, ???'??': +?' ????: ''???'??, ? ??'??': ?? ????' ?'?? 8.

?'?? ? ???'?, '? ?' ''???'' ?'? ???????'?? ??'? ? ?? +?' ???'??? ????? '??. ??, ? -???' ?????:', ?????? ???'??: ????? ??????, '????'??? ?' ???'?????'?'?'?? ???' ? '? ???'?'?? ? ?????'????? '?????'??? ? ???? '???. ?+ ??'???'?? ? ??' ???? ????: '?????'??? ?' ??????+???'? ????'?, '? ?'?????? '???? ''???'???? ?''?? ??'?'?? ? ?+???+'??? ??%???'?, ???'??; '????'???  ''???'? ?' ?'??'?'? '?'??????? ???? ???+??'?%?? ????'? ??????' ?' ??????, ????? ???%?? ?' ????'???' ? '?'''?'?'???? '??', ??'??? ??' ?'?'??? ??'? ? '''???'???? ?????'?', ???????, ? ?'???', ? ??? '??? ??%? ???? ?'????? ?+?'' ?????? 9. ??'-?''? ??'?, :?'? ???'??' ? ?''???? ?? ??'?-???????? ''???'? ?'?, ??''??? ?'?'?' ? ????'????? ??? ????' ?'????? ???'?+'?? ?'?, ''??'?? ??'????? ?'?' ???'??'? ?????? ??'??? ?????'?? ???'?, ????'??%? ???? ?????' ??? 10. -'? ?'??? ?'''?? ?' ??'?-???????? ???'? ?? ??:? ??? +'?? ? ????? '??.

????? '?' ??''?? '?'??: ???? ??-??'??%?? ?????''??? ?'??? ??'?-???????? '?? ? ???' +' ?+??' ????? ?' ????'?? ??'?. ? +''? +' '????? ? ?''?, ?? ??? ?'??? ?-+??? ?? ?'''?? ?' ?' ? ?'??' ?'? ?????'?? ?' ? ???? ??'??': '???. ? ?????? ?'????', :?'? ?'?? ????: '???'??''??':' ''???'?? ?''??? ?'?+ ?%?%'?? ? ??'???? '?? ? ''?'????? ??'?, ?:???%:?? ? ???? ???? ??????'??%?

''? 1. '???:????' ????'?????'? 21

: '??, ?' ? ???? '??'?-????????' ''???', ?'? ??'? ????'?? '??'?-??????:' '??'?''?? (? ??'??'??? ??? ??, ??????, ???'?'??' +?'????'??, ? ????: ??': ?' ??????'?? ????''??': ?????), ?? '?'?, '????'? ?????? ?' +?'??, ? R?, ??? ????. '?'?? ? ? ?''?? ???''??'? ???+?''??? ??'? ? '?' ' ? ? ??????, ? ?????? ? ?+ : ???'???''?: ? ?????'? . ??'? ?? % ??????'?? ??+'??'?? ??'?'? ??' ??????'??'??? ? '???'???':, ?''??':, ??'???': ??'?'':', ???? '??'?-??????' ''???'' ?' ??'? ??' ? +?'??? ??:??12. ?? '? ???' ??? '??'?-????????' '???'??''????' ''???'? ?????'?? ? '?? ? ?????? ?'????'.

?'?, ???????? ?????, '? ???'?? ???'''? ?????' +?'?? ???? ? ''???'???? ??. ?????, ??'? ????? ???'???% ?'?', +??? ??'????, ? ?????' ??: ??????, ??'???'??': '?? ?????, ?'? ??'???? ?? ?'?' ????'???, ??, ??????, ?????' ????'??? ????'??? ????'?'? ? ???? ????????? ''???', '? ?? ?'??? ???? ? ?: +??' ??????'??? ? '???': ????'??:', ????%?'???? ? ''???' ?'?. ?? ''???'? ?? ????: ?'?????: ??''?? ???''??'? ???'????? '??? ??'???? '???, '? '? +?'?? '?-'? ???'??, '? +?'?? ??? ??''?? ????'?'. '???????, ?????'? ????'??'??, ??????'?? ??????', ??'??' +'' +' ?'? ?''?? ?????'?'?. '??' ? '? ?? ??? ?''???? ????????'???? ?'?? ???'???? ':???: ????'?, ???'?'??': '????? ???'???, ? ??' ? ???'? ??'?'?? ??'?, ?? % '???': ''???'? ? ??? ???+'?, ??'??' ????' +'' ???'?'?' ?''????, '??'?? ' R???.

-' ?? ????' ?' ???'???'? ???'??': ??????': ???????'? ''???'? ???????? ???? ??? : ?+????? ?' :????? ''??'???' ?'???%? ?????'?'? ????. ??? ????????, ????? ????: ?''??, ???'??' ? '??, ? ?? ?'''?? ?' ????. ???-'? ???? ?'???, +??'? ''???'' ? ????''????? ????', '? ?'?' ????, '? ?? ?' ?'? ????????'? ????, ??%?? ?? ???+????'. '?-???':, ??? ?'???, , ??-?'??':, ?+'?''? '???? ???? ?' ?? ??????? ?''?, '? ??? ?'???. ' 1963 ?. .'.'''?? ???+'???' ? ???' 'Analysis' ?''?? ? ?? ? ??'????? ?'??', ?? ? ??'? ??'? ??????? ?????+ ?'?? ??? ???? ???'?' ?? ???'?????. ???'? ?: ???'?' ? ?'???%?: ????'??, '? ? ?? ?'? ?? ??????? ?''?, '? '??? +??' ??? ? ????'???? ??'???'? '? ? ??? ? ???? '' ???'? ???'; ?''? +''?, ?' ????'??? ?? ?? ??????? ?''?, '? '??? ? ???'?? ???'? ? ???? +??' ??? ? ????? ??'???'?. ??' '? ??'???, '? ?'? ???'?''??? ??????', ?? ?? ?'?? ?????? ??'???'? ??'?' ?????? '???,

22 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'? ??%? ???'? ???' ? ????. ???? ?'? ??', '? ?' ? ?', '? '???, ????''?????%? ?'??? ?????, +??' ??? ? ????? ??'???'?, :?'? ? ?? +'' ?? ??????? ?''?, '? '??? '??? +??' ??? ?? ???'?''??? +'' ??? ? ?'? ??'???'?. ?????? ?''?? '''?? ?'?' ??'? ?'?'??? ?' ?+?''??? ???''??'?? '???, '? ?'?' ??????' ?'???? ? ???' '? ?????? ? '? ? ?'? ''???'??, ??'??', ??? ???? ???%? ?????, '?'??? ??' ?????? ??????' ? ?'??? ????, ? '? '?+' ?'? ????? ?'??'??? 13.

'??' ? '? ?'? ''???'', ??'??' ? '?'??? ??'? ???'?? ?'????? ''???'??? ???????, ?? ????'???' : ? ?'?????? ???. '??' ? ???'?'?? +' ? : ?'????, ?? ?? ????'??? ? ???'? +' '?, ?? ?? ????' ?????'????? ????'?. ???:???%? ?????? ?'?' ??'?'???? ''???' '??? ????'???? 14. ????'???? ? ?'?????? ??? ?'?'?' ???'???? ???'? ? ??. ?? ?? ?'???, ? ?? '?' ???, ???? ?????'?': ??%???'?, ?+'??%: ?????'?? ?????': ???? ? ??????', ?? ?+??' ???? ????'???'????-??????? ??'??, ?? ???? ?'? ?' ???, ????, ????'???? ?????? ?????'??

?' ??'?? ???? '? ????%?? ??????? '???? '??'. ???'? '?+?? ????+??? ???'' ? ?? ???? ?'????'? ??? ??'?': ?????. ??, ??'??'? ?' ???'?''??? ???'??, ???'?', ?? ?'? ?'? ??????', ? ?????'?': ??%???'?, ?+'??%: ?????'??, ?+???+'??': ?'??'?? ?' ??, ???'???': ???': ' ??????'?. ?? ????  ????:, ?? ????' ? ?+ ?????, ? ??%?'???% ? ????'???'? ????, ?????'? ? ?? ?'???': ??'?, ? ??'??': ??'?' ???. ???? ?'?? ??'?'? ?+??? ?'???'? ? '???: ?????'? ' ?'?????, ?????'?? ? ?'???'?? ????? ??' ? '???? ???? ??

?' ? ?' ??'?' ??'??? ????'???? '? ??'? ?'? ?'?'. ????'???? ??? ?????+?? ?'?' ? ?? ?' ?????; ?'  ??? '?? ? ??'??? ???????? ?? '?'? ?? ?'?'.

??? ? ??????'?. ????'???? ?' ????? '????'????? ???? '?? ? ?+?' ''?????' '??? ??' (1961), ????? ? ???'???%: ?+?': ????, ??'??' ???'?? ?''?, ? ??%?'? ?'. ????+?? ????? ?''? '??? ????????, ?? ?'???', '? ??????' ???'?' ? ???+?'? ??? ' ???? ?'???''??? ?????'?': ??'??? ?'. -'? ?'?'???? ????:??' ? ??'?'' ?????'?? ??': ?'??'?? ? ????' ???'?. ?? ? ?? ????????? ? ??'?'?? ???? ?': ?'??'??, ? ??'?'?? ???'???'? ???'?. '??????'? ????, '%?? ? ?'?', ?', ?? ????'?????, ?''?, '? ?? '? ?:??'??. ?'??? ?? ?'?', '? ????????'? ?? ?? ? ????' ?????'? ?'?????; ?? ? ???'?' ????'': ???'???': ?'??'??.

'? ??'?? ?????, '? ?'? ????'???? ?'?????? '???? ?'?' ?'?'?'??? ?? ?'?? ???' ? ???'????: ?'?'???? ?-

''? 1. '???:????' ????'?????'? 23

????? ??'?'. Locus classicus * ?'??? ??? ??'?'?? ?''?? ???' '?%?%?? ?????' ? ???' (PR, 1959), ?'?????? ??+?'?? ? +?' ?????? ???'??' ??? ??'?'? ? ??? ???' '?'???'? ???'? ?'?' (1963). ' '?'?'?'???? '?? ?????' (1968) ????'???? ?'?' ???? '?? ?'????'???'? '??? ???'???? ?'?'???? ?????? ??'?' ? '?'??? ?'? ?%?%??, ?? ?'? ??''??': ???'???? ? '??, ???? ??'??': ???' ?????'??? +'' ???'?? (:?'? ? ???'???%? ??' ???? '??? ???) ???'?'? ? '???: ??'??????? +:????. ''? ?' ??''??' ???'???? ???? '?? ????'?'??' ??+?? ????'? ???????'?????'. ''? ????'????  ?? ?'? ???'????, ?+'??% ????'???? ???????'?????'??, ???'????, '??????' +''? ????? ????'????? ??? ??????', ???? ???'??? : ???? ?''? '?'???'??'?' ?' '? , ?? :????? ????' ?+'?' ?'???'????, +'????? ??'???? ?? ???+??? ?????? ??'????. '? ??'?? ?%?%??, '? ?? '? ??'??'?? ???'?????, ?? ???'????? '??????'? ?'? '???, '?+' +''? ????? ?+??'??'??'? ????'????? ??? ?'??'??'. ??? ?+???, ? ???'???? ?'?'?? ? ??: ??-?+??, ?'???'?? ??%?'???? ??''??': ???'????. ????? ???, ?'?' ????'????, ???', '? ?' ???'???? ?????????? ?'? ???'???? ??? , ?'???''???, ??%?'???' ? ????'???'? ????, ?''? +''?, ? ?'?' ???'??????? ???'? ???'' ????'???? ? ??.

?+????? ?'???': ??'? ????'???? ?' ? ?'????? ?'?. ???' ?'???', '? ?' ??'?'?? ?'???????'?'? ????'?, ??'??? ???? ????''? ? ????? ?????+???' '??? ??????'? ????'??' ??' ?'??, , ??'? ????? ? ''???'?? ???'?' ? '??, '?+' ????'??'? ?? sub specie aeternitatis **, ?? '??'?' ????? +?'? ????'? ?' ????: ?'???': ??'?'. -'?, ?? ???? ????'????, ??'?? ????? ?????'? ???'; ??  ??+?'???? ??? ??'?'?? ?'?'????. ?? ?'???'?'?' ?'???' ??'? ?? ?????'?? '??: ?+??'??, ??'??', ?????, ?' ???????? ? ????????': ?'??: '?'??? ?? ?'???'??', ??????, ? ?????, '? ??, ???? ??'??'?? ????'?, ?? ? ???????? : ?? ??????? ????'?? ??'??': ??'? ? ?????, '?  ??'?'???? ??' +''? ????'?.

'? ???? ??'? ? ????:? ' ???? ??? '???, ?'? ??' (1973) ????'???? ?'''??'?? ?' ?'??????? ??? ?????'??? ? '??, '? ?? ??'? ???? ?+??? ????'?'?' ??+?? '??'?, ?? ??'???? ?' ????? ???? ??'?', ?? ?'?? ??? ?'''?? ?' ?'?', ??'???? ?' ????'? ??????'??, +? ??? ???? ?'?' '??'?'???? ????? ' '?????? ?'? ??: ???'??' 15. ???'??? ????'?????, ?'? ???????? ????? ? ?'? '?: ????, ?? ??? ? '??, '? ???-

* -???: ?'????? ?'?? (''). ?' ???. ??.

** ? '?? ??? ????' (''.). ?' ???. ??.

24 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'??? ??? '' ? ?'?'; ??? ????'?'?' ??+?? ???'??? ?????, ? ??'???? ?'???? ?'????, ????+?? ????? ??''??'? ???'????? ??? ???????'?' ? ??????? ???'??. ?? ?? +''? ? ???'? ????, ?+'?'? ?????? ??'??': ? ?' ???????

???'??? ?'?'? ????'????, ???'?  ? ??: ???, ?''?, '? ???'? ??? ?'??'??'??, ?' ?'? ???????'?????'? '????'? ??'?' '  '???' ?+% ?'????? ??'????? ?+???? ??? ?'?? ??'' ? ???'?'?'? ? ?+%? ???'?'. ??, ?' ?? ??? ? '??, '? ??'?? X ?'??+'?, ?????' ??'??? ??????' ??? ? '??, '? X ??'?, ?' ?'???? ??'??? ?'???? ?'??'??'??, ??? +' '????? ?' ? ??' X, '? ?'? ???'?'?' ?? ?+% ??? ? '??, '? ?+?'?'??' ??'?'.

' ?'?? ?', ? ???'???? ????'?? '?+??? ??, ????'?? ? ??? ??%?'???? ??'?. ?? ???'?''??? ' ?? ????' ??'? ?' ????', '? ?'??? ?' ??, ?? ??'? ?? ????'? -' ??????' ????'???? ?+???' ? ???:'????? '??? ??? ???? '?????' ???'? ?'?' (1978). ?? ??????'?? ??'??' ????? ??? ?'???? '??: ????'?'?? ( ? ???'??': ???': ?''???'??), '??'??'???'??' ? ??: '.?.?'?' '?????'?'??', ????'?'??', ?????, ?????'??? ??' ? '??, '? ?????'?' ??%???' ????'?'??' ??+?? ??? ?????'?. ?'??? ?? ?'' ?'???, ? ?+%: ?': ?'??? ????????, '? ? + ?????'?': ??%???'?, ? + ?????'? ?+??'?? ?'??, '? ?? ??'?'?'?? ???'???? ?', ?? ?'?? ?????'?' ??%???' ?+'??' ?????'?? ?:???'?? ? ????'??': ?'?????: ???? ? ??????.

?'????? ??? ?????'?? '????'???'?? ???'? ????. ?'??? ?' ??, '? ?????' ??%?'???'? ?? ???? ????'????, ?' ? ??? ?'?''? ? ?'?' ??????, ????'? ?????'??, ?? ????'' ????' ?? ?'?. ?? ??%?'???' ?????', ?'??'?' ??? ? ????? '????'???? ?+%: ?????. ????'???? ??????' '?? ?' ??? '???'??? ????'??' ''??? ?????'?'; ??????', ???%?? ???, ?? ? ???????? ?'?'?'?' ? ?'?????, ???? ?'''?? ???'??'? '????? ''???'?'. '??????'? ????-'+? ????? ''???' ????? '?? ???, ???????'? ????-'+? '?? ?????'? ????? ???'? ????'?? ?' ???? ?'? ???? ?? ?????????? ?'???' +' ?+?' ???. ?? ????'???? ??' ? '????' ''????'??? ??????''.

??'? ????'???? ??+'? ? '??, '? ??' ?? ?'?'? ????? ?'????? '??, +''? +' '????? ??' ?'?????? ''???'???? ???+'??, ??'??? +'' +' ??'?'? + '%''????? ?' ? ???'?? ???'''?. '????, ? ?????, ?''??? ?????'?? '???'? '????? '?????? ? ?? ??? '?:???'?? '???'??' (1980) 16. -' ??? ?? ???-

''? 1. '???:????' ????'?????'? 25

?: ?'?????: ??'?' ??+?? ????? ???? ???+'??%?? ??? ''???'????? ?''?. ?%''??? ?????'?, ??? ?'??'? '??' ??????'?'?? ????'??? ?????, ????%: ??????? ?????' ? %'? ?'????': ??'???, : ????'???' % '??'? ?'?? '+?' ?'??': ?????'??'. ????'?'??? ???:??, ?? ??? '??? ??'??'?? '???''??????', ?'? ?+?' ?+% ????'?, ??'??? ???? +''? +' ?'? ??'?-???????? ''???' ? 1970- ???'. ????? ???? ?????? ?????' '???? ?:???' ? ''???'? ???'?''? '?+? ?' '?? ?+???, ?'? ''???'??, ??'???: ?+???? ? ???'???, ???'?''? ??:???' ??? ?'?'??? ??; ?'??  ? '?+?? ? ?: +?' ?????, :?'? ????'??? ?????.

???? ????? ?? '???? ??' ? ??????? '?? '?? ???, '? '???'?? ??'?'?? ?'???''??'?, '? ??' +''? '???'???'? ? ????-'? ????? ?????'??? ?'???? ? +''? '???'???'? ?? ? ?????? ?'????17. '????, ? ?????, ??'??? '????????? ???'????''????'? ?' ??'? ?'??'?' * ????'?? ?+, '? ????, ??'????? ?? +'' ? ????? ?' ??'??'?, ?? ?? ?? ?'?'???? ???'???? ????' ??'??. ' ?'?? ?'?, ? ?? ?'???''????? '???'?, ?? '???'??? ???' ? '? ?'???'??? ?'??? ???????? ??' ?'??'?' ?' ? ?????' ?''???, ????'??? ' ?' ?? ???'????''????'? ' ?? ????? ??????. ' ???'???? '?+?? ????+??? '?? '???? ?'???', '? ?'? '???'? ? ?? : ?????'? ??'?' +''? ?+%?, ? '? '?+' ? ????'? ?????? ?+ : '???'?????' ? ????? ?'???? ?'???'?????' ? ??????. '? ???'?????' ??'??'?? ??%???, +?, ???'??? '?????, ?? ?????'??'?? ' ? ???? ????'? ''???'???'?' '???'??%? ', ' ? '''? ?+????, ??????? ???'??'? ?+???%? ?'????'.

'??' ? '? '???? ?'?'?' ??'??, ??'??? ?'? ?????' ??????? '?? ?+ '?'???''???? '???'?', ???? '? ?' ? '???'???', '? ???? ?? ?'????? ? ???'????? ??? ' ????, ??'??'? ????'?' ??'???'?, ????? ??? ?%?? ?? ??'??'?? 18. -'? ??' ??? ??-??'?''???, +? ?'? '???, '?+' ??'???'?, ''? ?'? ?'?', ??+:???? ??'? ???'???? ?+%?? :??'??'??, ????? ?????'??, ????'??% '??'??? '???'?, ??:???? ??%?'????? ?'? ?+??'??, ??'??' ?:???' ? ?? ???'????''. ?+???'? ?????? ?'?' ??? ?????. ?:??'???'? ?'? ?? '???? ?' ?', '?? ?+???, ??'? ???'??' '???' ?'????', ???''????' ' '??????????, ??'??' ????' ???'???'??? ? ?'?'???': ???: ?'? ??'???'??, ??'?'?? ' ??? ????? '?????, ???? ?? ? ???? ?''? '????? ???? ?? ????%' ? +''?, ?? ??: ?+-

* ??? ???: ??'??: ?+'????, ???????'': ??. 1500 ?? ?.?. ? ''???', ?'? ??'???'? ? ?+???? ??' ? '?????. ?' ???. ??.

26 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'??''??'?: b ?'?'?? ????? '??  '?????, :?'? ?, ???'??, ???? ???'? ??? '?+??? '????, ? ?? ? '????', ????' ?? ?' '???'. ????'', ?????' '?????, ???' '????, ???'?'??' +?' ?'??'? ?'??. ' ?'???? ?': ????'?? ?' ? ????'?? ???? ??'?, ??'??' ????'??' ??, ???, ?'???'?, '? '??? ?'? '?'  ??'? quercus *, '? ??+??? ????, ? ??'??? ?? ????'??. ?' ???' ??????? ????', ????????, ?'??'???' '?  ???? '????, '? '  ?' ?? ????', ?? ?'?  ???? ?'???'? ? '?+': ????: ?:. '???? ?'???? ???'?, '? ? ????+?': ?'??: ????' '???'? ?????'?' ????'???? ??'? ???????'???'?, ?? ? ??'?'??? +?'????, '?+' ??????'? ?? ?+%? '?.

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

* '?+ (''.). ?' ???. ??.

''? 1. ' ???: ????' ????'?????'? 27

???'? ????'???': ???? ????'?, '?, ??-??????, ?''?' ?? ????'? '??? '?'??'????? ???:?? ? '???', ???? ?? ????'??'?? ? ?? ??'??, ?? ??? '??'??'? ????'???''19. ?' ?? ??? ?'?'??' ?????% ??'???????, :?'? '???'??' ????'', ???'???' '??????, ????'?'??' ??+?? ? +?' ? ++??'??', ?'??? ???? ? ?'??', '? ????%?? ? ?? ?'???' ? ????' ????'?'?'? ?'?+????? '??????? ?'??.

???? ?' ?????' ? ??'? ? ??? ??'. ?' ???' +' ?'??' ??'???? ??'? ?????'??? ?'????, ??'??' ?+?'?' ?? +?' ??'?'? ?'????? ''???'??? '?? , '? ??? ? ?????'?, ???'?? ???'? ???'?'?? ??'???: ??, +? ????? ? ?'?????? +?'????? ??: ?????? ???' ????? 20. ??, ????, +?' '???+??? +??' ?????'????'? ???? ? '?? ?'? ???. ?+? ???? ? ????' ????'??? ?? ? '???, ???? ?'? ???? ????-'+? ???+'?' ? '????? ''???'' ??+''??', ?? ?'? ?'' '????, ???' ???:??' ' , ?? ?'? +'?' ? ????: ?'??:, ?''?'?? ???'?, '? ?'???? ???+'?' ''???' ? ?'???' ??????? ?????.

'?????, ?'?-'? ??'', '? ? ?'?? ???????'?? ???? ? ?'?? ?' ??? ??????. ? ???'????? ''???'' '?+'?????? ?'?' ? ?'?'?? ???'? ??' ''???'?? ???+'?', ?'??? ?????+' ?'??????'?+'??? ????? ? ?????'' ???' ''???'? ?+'?????? ?'? ???+?'' ?????? ?'?? ?' ? '??? ?'??, '? ?'? ????''? ?????? ???'?????: ''???'?? '?????? ????'??' ??''??? ?:??'???'? ?? '?'??:????? ?????????' 21. ?? ? ?? ??-?? ??  ??'??? ?''? ?' '?, '??? ??': ?'?? ??'? ? ? ??? ?? ?'?? ?''? ??'???, ???+??? ?' ?? ?' ? ????????'?????': ???':, ??+?'??': '???? ??'? ??'?? '?????. -' ????????'?????' ???'' ???'?' ?? ???+?'? ??:???? ? ?????'??? '?? ?'?.

???? ?+?'? '?' ?''' (1969) ??'? ??' ? ??????? '???, '? ?? ??'?? ''???'? ?'?, ? '????'???? ''???'?. ?' '????'??? ''???'? ?'''?? ???'? ' ??'??'? ?'???? ''???'?? ???+'?', ??'?? ???'???? ???? ?????+? ???'?+'?? ????'??': ?'??, '? ??? ''???'? ?'? ?'?' ? '?'? ????????% ? ''???'???? ?'? ????? ????'??': ?+%: ?' ?'?, '?: ?? ?'???, ?'?, ?? ??+:?????'?'. ?? +' ? +'' ? ???'??' ? +?'????'? ???? ???????' '''???'' ?'?' ? ???'??'? ??'? ?'??? ?'????, '?? ???? ?'??%: ??? ?? ? ?? ????' +'. '????? ?'?? ???+?' '????'??? ''???'?, ? ''???'? ?'?.

?'??' ??+?'?, '? ?? ??'? ? ????' ??'? ?? ???+%: ????: ? '????'???? ''???'?, ? ??'???? ?? ?? % ??'?? ?'??-

28 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'??? ?? ? '???'? ? ''???''. ?? ? ?? ?? ??'??' ?'??': ????'?''? ? '?? ??????, '?, :?'? ? ?:, ????????, '??? '???? ?'?' ? '????'??? ?'??, ???' ? '? ?? ??? ?'? ???'???' ' ??' ? ???'???' ''??'??? ???'' ?'? ????? +'???'?? ? ???: ?'???:. ???? ??+?'????? ?? ?? ??' ? '??, '?+' ??+?''? ?'?' ''??'??? ???''. ? ?'?? '?? ??'? ?+?%'?? ? '?? ??': ?'?? ??'?; ? ?'' ?' +?'????'? ''???'?? ?'?, ?'? ??? ?'?????? '???? ?'?' ? ?'??? ? ???'??, ???????'?? '?: ?'?? ???'??? '?? ?????? ????? ?''. ?? ??'?'??? '?? ?????? ?'?? '??, ???'?? ? ???????'? ???????? ???' ? '??? ??'?''?, '? ???? ??'?, ? ??'? ?'? ?'+??' ? ??'? ?'?????? '?? ?? ?????'?? '?? ??': ?'?? 22.

???? '???, ??'? ?'??'?? ? '???????'. ??'? '??? ??': ?'?? ?'? ???????' ?? ?????? '? '???? ?'?, ??'??' ?+?%?'?? ? ???'???? ?'???'?? ???'???, ? ? ?????? ???'??? ??????%??, ?' '?? ?'??', ?? ?? ????, ?''? ????'???%? ???? ????. ??'?? '??? ?'? ??'? ?''?'? ?? '?, '? ??????%? ????'?? ?????'?, ??????? '? ' ?? ???'??, '? '?, ??? ?? ?' ???'???? ? ???'??. -' ??? ???+??? '?? ?????'?'?? ? ?' ??'? ????. ??'? ? ?+%? ?' ??? ?????' ?' ??? '??????' ''????' ????? ?', ????? ??? '?, '? ? ?+%?, ??? '?'?? ???? ?+%??, ????? ????? ? ????'?' ??+?? ????-'+? ?????'??? '????. ?' ????'??': ?'?? ??'? ?+??'??'?'?? :??'??? '??? ?????'???? ''???'????? ?', ? :?? ??'????? ???%?'?'?'?? ?????. -'? ????''? ?? ??'?? ?'???'?, '? ??? ?'??? ?' ?'? ???'??? ??'???'?, ?? ????'?'?? ?? ?'??? ?+%?? ????'????? ??????. ?''???'??? ?', ?? : ????, ?' ?'? ?'? ????'?''???.

????? ?? ??'? ? '' ?' ?'? ??'?. ?? ??', ? ????'?? ? ???? ?+?' '''?? ??' (1979) ?? ??????', '? ??'???' ? ? ?''? ?? ?????'????? ?'?'? ??'?' +'' ???'?'? ????, ? ??'???? ???'?'??? +', '? '??? ??? ?+??' ?'? ''???' ?????, ?' ???'????, ? ?'???', ??'? +'' +' ???'? ??' ?'' ? ?'???'????'??. ' ?'?????? ?'?, ????? '?? '?? ??? ??'?, '? ??%?'??' ??-'? ???'? ''?? ?'?': ???? ''???'??': ?'??, ?? ??'?? ?????'?'?, '? ??%?'??' ???? '?? ??'? ?+%: ?'???? ????+?': ?'??, ?? ?? ? +??' ?'''??? ??????'? ''???' ?????, '? : ??? +''? '?'??? ??'?, ? +?'?? ? ????, :?'? ???? ?'?, ?? ?? ????, ? ?????? ?' '?+?'?? ?' ??? ?? ''???'. (''????? ?'?????? ???' ? ???? ????+?' '??????''??' ?????'' ? ??'?????? ??:, ? ????%?? ??'??': ???'?'???, ??

''? 1. ' ???: ????' ????'?????'? 29

??''??? ? ?'???, '? ??'?? +''?.) '? ??'?? ??''?????, '? ??'? ?????', ?'???? ? ??'?? ?+%?? ???+??? ??'???, ??? ?'??'? ?????? ? '??, ??? ?+????? ?? '??? ??' ?''?? ?'?'?'?. +?? ?'?' ??????, ?? ??'?? ?'??' ????' '+???'????? ???', ??'??? ??'?'?? ?'?'??'? ?'? +?'????'? '??? ? ????????? ''???' ?'?. ???? '???, ?? ??????', ???? ?? ? ????''????' ???''? ???'??': ???????': '????'?? ??'?'? ?? ?' ??': ?'?? ????????? ?' '???????': ??'?'??': ???' ? ???? '%''??? ??+?'???? '???, ??'??? ?' ??? ???? ? ?+%? '????'?, ? ? ''???' ????? 23.

???'??'? ??'? ??? ??' '??? ?' ?' +???'? ? ?'? ?????? :????'???. '??? ? +'' :????? ??'?'? ??????''? ? ???'???, ???? '?? ??:' ??????? ?'???' ??'?. ????? ??'? ?? ????? :??'?? ??'?''??, ???''? ???. '???  ?' ?'?? ???:, ?'??? ?????'?????': '%''??? %%??': ?' ???'??????'?? ?''?. ' ?+%: ?': ??, ????+?? ??'?, ?????'?? ??'??????? ??, ?'???? ?'?'??? ??'? '??? ????'? ???, ??'??? ?' ?? ?? ??' ? ?''? '-??, ????????? ??????%?, ?? ???'??? ?? ?'??' (1968) ?' '?' ?????'??, ???? ?????? ? ???-'?, '?, ?????? '??-'? ???'?, ?? ?' ? ??? '?-'? '?-'?', ? ?'' ?' '?? '??'??? ???, ???? ???'?? ' ?'??? ?? ?? ?+ '?' '?-'? '?-'?'. ?'?'??'? ?'?, ???'??? '????, ?+??' ?'? '??? ????'? ???????'??': ?????, ??'??? ??' ? ???? ??????? ??????% ???'?'??' ???'??? '??. -' ???' ??' '????'', '??? ?? ''???'? ?'? ?'???' ???? ?' ?? '?????. ' ?'?? ?' ? ????? '???, ?'? ??????' ???'???? '??, ?:??', '?+' ?'???%? ?? '??? ?????', ? ? ???'?' ??, ??????%??, ????, +'????? ?'??? ??????? ?'?????' ?' ', ?? ????? ??, ?' ???? ?'?????'? ?' ? ??, ??????%??, ????. (??, ?' ?'?-'? ??' '???', ? ?? ????? ?:??', '?+' ', ?'? ?? ?''?', ??????, '? ?? ??+?'?? ?' ?: ???? ????? '???', ???'''?? ?+'?.) ??? ?+???, ? 1960- ???' ???'?????? ''???'? ?'? +'' ? ?????? ?' ???? ? ???'?'???'?????? '???? ???'??; ?'? ?: ??: ???? +''? ?'?'??'? ????'?.

' ???? ?+?' ''??? ??????' (1975)24 '???, ? ?'???', ???'?' ???? '??? ?'? ? ???'??? ???? ??????, ?+?? ?????, ? ? ?'?'??'? ?'??'??'? '?? ' '??, ?????'? ??? ??+?? '?'??? '???'??? '????? ?'??????. ?? ??????', ?'???' ??, ??????'?? ????'??'? ???'??'? ?????; ?????? ??'? +''? ??'?'??? ????''??'?, ????'??? ?'? '?+?'??, ? +?' '???; '??? ? ??'? ?????'? '?, ?? '? ? ??? ?' ????': ??????? ??'?; ?????? ??'? +''? ???'?'? '.?. ''????? ?'??? ?+-

30 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'??''??'?? ??+???? ??' ?'??' ?'???, ?':???% ???'' ': '???'??': ?'??'??, ??'??' ?''??' ???????, ? ?'? ????': ?'??'??? ?' ? ???'???% ?'? ?'??'???. ??, ?' ? ?'??'?? ??: '-'? ??' ' '???, ' ??'?', ? '? ????????? ?'? ????????', '? ? ?? ??????, ?'? ?: ??' ?'?, :?'? '???'??? ? ?? ???? ?'??'? ????+?? ?? ? '???, ???? ? ??, '? ????? ????'' '????. ?'????'??? ?'? ? +?' ?+%? ?'?? ????%???? ??: ?????'?, '? ?'?-'? ?'??'?' ?'???? p ?? ??'??, '?, ??+'??? ????' ???'????? ??????, ?? ? ?'' +' ?'??'?'? ?'??? ?'?????, ? ???????? ?? ???? q. ?' ?? ?'?? ?? ????', '? ? ?'??? ?'? ?'??, :?', '?+' ? ?'? ??'', '? ?? '? ????????? ?'? ???????'', '? q. ?'?, ??%?'??' ?'???'??? '??? ?????? -? '??  ??, ? ????, ?? ???? ??? '??? ?'?????, ??%?'??' ?'???'??? '??? ??'?. ?? '? ' ?'? ?' ???'?''??? ' ?'? '??? ' '?? ?+?? +?'???: ??'?????'? ?' ?'?' ?????? ?'?' ??'? ??????.

''? 2. ?'???'?? ??'??? 31

''? 2. ??????? ? ?????????

?'????'??? -??, ????%? ?'??? ?? '??'?????? ????'?'?, ? '????? ??????, ? ?'''?'?'???? ?'? ??? ?'? ?' ??'??????? ???'???. ????? ? -?? ????: ? ?????? ???'' ???? '???? ?+%? '????'?', ?????'?? ??+???'? ?+?????? '????': ??????'?? ???+'?????'? ? ? 1915 ? 1. ????+?? '????, ?????? ?'???', '? '??? ?'? ?'? '?? ?'? +?' ?+????? '??. ????? ???'??? ??'?'?? ? '??? ???'??, ?+%? '??? ????, '???'???', ??'??? ?? ?:??' ???'???? ?'?? ? ??'???? ??:?'???. ??? +' ????'???'? ? +''? ?'? ?'????, ? ?????? ??? ??''?? '?? ????????'? ??'??. ?? ?'???? '??? ??'?'?? langue *, ' ?+%? '????'??? ?'???'??, ????'??? ?? '??????????'? ?'?'???, ?'?'?'??%:?? ? ??? ????? '? ?'?????? ??''?'?', ??'???? ???'??' ? ???? ???? ?' (parole) ??'? '? '???? ??''?'?. ?? '??? ??' ??? ?'? ???'?'? ????, ? ???'???. ??'? ??, ?'???' ??????, ?' ?? ???': ?? ???%? ??? ????' ?? ???'? ??? ?'?:??'? ?+???, ??????? '?????, ?' ???'' ??'?'?' ???? ?' ????, ?? '?? ?+???'?? ?'????' '?' +???. ??, ?? ?' ???%?? ?'?:????? ?+?, ?' ??, ?'? '?? ???; '?, ?? ?' ??????, ?' ????'?, ?'? '?? ???'?? ???''?'??'? ?'?'.

???? ??? ?'?:??'? ?+??? ????'? ??'?'??, ?? ???????, ?????'????, '??? '? , ?? ?????'? '?' '?', ??'?' ' ?:?'?' '???' ??? ' ?'?????? ???', ?' ??????, ????+?? ''???'???, '?+' ?'?? ? ?:?'?. '? ? ??'?'?? ?????'??'? , ?'???''???, ???'?'?' ??'%? ????' ??? ?'? '????'???? '??, '? ?'? ?'????? ??? ???. -' ?'????? ??????' '?, '? ?????? ?'?' '????'???' ?:?'??? ??', ??'??? ????'?' '??' ?:?'??? '???' ? ???'?'?'? ? ???'?.

'-??' '?+?? '???' ???'?? ?' ?????? ????'??? ?:?'?': '??? ? ???? ? ???????. ?' ??? ???'? ?'? ????'??, ???????? ? ?? ? '??, '? ?? ?????'???'?. ?:???'? ?+???, ??'?' ?????? ? ???'???? '?, ?'? ?'???'?'?' '????'???? '??? ? ''?'???, '????' ??' ??+''?'? ??:??????? '??? ?'?, ?'??? ?'?, ?? ?? ?'? ? ???'? ?????'?'? ????' ????. ?? ??' ? ?+?%'? ????? ? ?:????? ????, ?'???????? ?'?. ????????, ?'?? ???? '?????''??? ?' ??? ?'???

* ?'? ('??.). ?' ???. ??.

32 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???? ? ?:?''. :?'?' ?????? ????' ???? ? ????'?? '??? ? ????, '??? ?? ?'?, ???'??? ???????, '???? ???-'? ?+??? ????'?' ?' ?????'?? ??' ???? ' ?+%?'?'. (' ?'?? ?'? ?''??? ?'''?? ?' ?, ????? ???'?'?? ???'???, ??'??'? ???? ?????'?.)

?? ????' ??? ??+?? ??? ''??'? ?'????? ??? ??? ?'? ?????? ??'?'?? : ?', ??'???, ?? ??', ???' : ?? ?'?'??' ??. ? ???%? ?????, ?????' ??, ?''??? ????? ????:??' ? '?? ?'?, ?' ?? ????'??' ?''? ?'??, ??, ?????, +??? '?' ????'?' ?'''? ?'??? ''?' ?' ?'?? '??'; ????: ?'? ?' ? ?'?'?? ? ?'?:. (????' ? ?'?'??' ?????? ?'? ??? ''' '?', ?????'??? ? : ?'? ???? ?' ? ??' ????? ??' ?? ?''?? ?'??.) ???'???; ?'?' ??????, ?'?:???? ?+? ?' ?'? ? ????'? '????' ?????+ '???'?????? ??????'; ??????? ???? ?'? ????'?'??, '? ?' ?'? '?'?'??'? ?????'. -?? ??, ?????' ?? ? ?:????? ???, ??' ?''???, ????'?'?? ' ?'?' ?? ? ': ??':, ?? ???' +' ?'??'? ???? ??, ??, ?????, ? ???'?? '?? ?+' ? :?'?' ???'? '?+'' ???'? +' ?'??'? '???'', '??+?'??' ' '??:'', ???? +'????? ?'??? ?+?'??''??'?? ???? ?'??? ?' ??. (????' ? 'It is a long way ... go'. -??? ??????? ??' +''? ??'?? '?'??? ?'? 'to'. ????? ?? ?'?? ??? 'to' ? ?'?? ???'??' ??? ? ??'.) ????'?, ? ???'?''????', '?'? ?''??'??' ????'??'?? ? ???? ??'??'? ??????, ??'??? ? : ?'???? ? ????? ?'?? ??'?''. ????' ? ????'? ??%?'??' ??-'? ?', '?+' ?? ?' ??; ?' +' ?'? +''? '?, ?'?? ? ??': ?'?: +'' +' ?'???? ??????'?, ?? ? '???'. ?'? ?'?'?? ??'? ?????+? ?''??.

?' '??? ?'? ?????? ???'?' ? ?+ ?'?? ? '?'??? ? ????? '????'??, '? '?? '?? ???, '? ??????' ??? ?+?+%? ? ???? ?+'?'. ??? ????, ?????? ?'???', '?, ? ?' ??'?? ????' ?'????? :??'? ??????' ?????, '? ???????? ????? ? ?'? ?'???, '? ? ?? ??, ?????, ??'?+?'?? ? ????? '??'????? ?' ?'?'?'? : ?' : ?'????: ?????, ????'??'? :, ?? ?' +' ?? +'' ????'?, ?' ?'? ???? ???'???' ????'??? ? XIX ?. ????%??, '? ????'? '?-'? ?' ?' ??'? ?? ? ?'?????? ??'. '?-?'??':, :?'? ?'? ???'??'?? ????? ?'? ???'?? '?': '?, ? ????? ???%?'?'?? ????? ??''? '? ' ?'?, ??????????? langue ??????' ?? ?' '; ?'? '??'?'?? ?? '???'??? ??'?, ????'??%?, ??? ?+??? ????', ????? ?' : '?, ???????' '?? ????? ??. ?? ?''? ?'? +' ? ??'??'??, ?' ? ??????, ? ??? ? ?'? ??'' ?????? ? '??, ??%?'???' ' ???? ?????????% ?? ???'. '-'?'?:, langue ??'?'?? ??-

''? 2. ?'???'?? ??'??? 33

??''? ? ?+. ?' ?' ???'?' ???'?, '? ?? ??%?'???' ?'? '???, '?+' ??'?'? ? '?, '? ???? ? ??'?'??, ? ??? ?+???'? ? ?+??', '? ?? ?????? ??'??' '?'??? ? ???? ??. ??? ?+???, ??'?? ???, ?'?'? :??'??? ?'? +?' ?????? ''???'?'?????, ?'??? ?' ????' ? ???'???? ?????'???'. '-'??'':, ??'? ?? ??%?'??' '?'??? +'????? '???, '? ?'?' ???? ??. ? ???'??': ?': ?? +'' ??? ?????' ?? ??????, ????? : ?'??'?' .?.???, ?? ? ???'??' ?? ??'?' ??????'??? ???? +'????? ???????.

?????? +'' '????'??, ? ''???'??. ? ???? ?? ??''?-'????'' ???  ???:?'' ??' ?? ? ?' ??? ???? ?? ?' ? ?????????? '????' ??? ???+??? 2, ? ???'???%? ?????????? ??' ? ????, '? ? ??????' '''. ''????? ?? ?' ? +'' ????' ? ??''???, ? '???'?'??? '????? ? ?????????? ????? 1920-: ?????. ?+'?? ?????'?'???, '? ?????? ????, ????+?? ???'??? ? ?'?, ?? ???? ???? ????? ?'?' ' ??, ?????%? :?????, ', ???'??? ???'??'? ????????'?? ????'?, ???'??? ?? ???. ?? '???'?'???? ?' ??'?'??, '? ??? ?????? ???? ?' ?'? ''? ?? ', ??? +?'??, ?'? ?? ?????'?, ?'?''?%? '?'??? ? ????? ??'??. ''?'?? '? ?''?? ?????+?? ????'??? ??''?, ?'??%? ?? '???'?. ????  ?'' '??'??'? ?? ??????%?? ????'??'? ?????, ?+??? ?? ??' ?'?'? ?? ?'?'????? ????. ??''? ??'??', ? ?? ?+?'' ?'?' ???, ??'??'? ????' ??''? '?'??? ? ????? ''?'???'? ????????. ' ??'? ?????? ??????'?? ?''??, ?'??????? ?'?? ?? ??? ??? ?'??? ??? '?, '? ?'?' ?'? ???'?', ?'??, ?????, ?? ?'????', ???? ? '??, ?? ???'?? ????'. % ??? ???+????'? ???'??????????: '????'??: '??? +???'?? ? ?': ????? ??'? '+???'? ???'????'????'??', '???'?????'??' '??????? '???. -' ? +'' ???????'' ?'''?'?'??'? ????'??, ??'?'? ??? ???? '?'???'??'?'.

????' ' ?'???'??'? ? ?+'?'?, ?:?''???? ??? ????'??? ?'?? ??????'? ?'????? ????'?????? ?'? ????' ??????? ?'? '???, '?+' ?'? ?'?''??'? ?'?' ? ?'?' ??????, ??'?? ?'???'??'?'?? ? ??? ??'???''?, ???%???? ?'??? ??. ? ??? ?'???'??'?'?? ? ???' ?''????? ???????, ?????'????? ? ''''? ?'?' ??'?. (-'? ?????'?'? ?????'??, +? ?'???'??'? ? 1960?'70- ???' ?'' ?????? ?'''?'?'???? ?????, ???? ? ???? ???'?'??.) ???'??' ?'???'??'?'?? ??????? ?'?' ???? ????'???'? ? ''???'?, ??'?? ? '??, '? ?? ?'??? ??, ?'????'??, ??''?'?? ' ??:??''?. ?? ??????', ?'? ????'??? ''???'???? ??'?? ? ???? ???; ?? '????

34 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??'?', ????? ?????, ???''??'???%? ?+ ?+?'???, '? ? ?'????' ???: ?'? ''???'??: '???. '?' '???, ????+?? ???'?'?'? ?? ?:, ?? ??' ??? ??''??? ?'?? ? +?' ????? ?+????': ??'?-??????: ''???'??, :?'? ?? ''???'??: '??'?''?? : ?'? ?'???' ? '?, ?'? ???'?'?' '????????? ''???'?'. ?  ??'?-?????? ''???'', ??'??' ??''' ? ?+ : ?'??, ??? ???? ??'???, ??'?? ??'???-??''???? ''???'? ?'??? ??, ? '? ??'? ''???', ? ??'??': ?' ??' ?????'????'? ?? ????.

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

????????, ?' ???' +' ??'? ? ?'?'? '?'???'??'?'?' '?'??? ':, ?'? ??'?? ??? ??'? ???????+??': ???+?????, ??'??' '? ??????' ? ??'?''?, ????? ?? ?'????? ? ??'?, ? ?:?''??' ?'??'??, ?:???%:?? ?? ' 3. ????? ? '??? ?'? ??, ?? ??, ???'??? +' ?:??'? ??? ?'??' ????' ? ?+'?' ??? ?'?'?, ??'??? '' ???'? '???, '? ?+'?? ???:??' ??? ???? '?'???'??'?', ??'?'? ?????'??? ???-

''? 2. ?'???'?? ??'??? 35

?: ':, ?'? '?? ???? ??'? ??? ?? '?'???'??'?''. ????+?? ?'?? ???' +' ??+'''??? ???:??'? ? ?'????'??? ?'??? '?-?'?????, ?? '?'??? ? +?'???? ?'?????'? '?'???? ??' ??'? ????, '??:??''??' -?? '???, '?????'?' '? ?'?'?????, ??'??, ?????'?, '???'???' ?'?? '?'?, ??'??-'''???'?' -?? '???. ?'?? ??'?, '? : ????' +' ????????'? ? ?? ?'?? ?'?. ????+?? '???'?'?'?' ?? ?:, ?? ?'? ?'????' ??''? '?'???'??'?'. ????? '?'??? ??? ????: ? ????'?? ? ??'?????? ?????? ???? ?'''?'?'???? ?'?? '?'?? ?%' (1966) ?' ? ??'???? ?'? ??? ?????? ?? 'The Order of Things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

??, '? ?''?'? ? ???'?'?'?? ?+?'???? ??????, ???? ???????'?? ??'? ?? '?????, ? '?? ??? ?'???'??'?'??, ? '?'??? ?+??, ?? '''???. ?? ??', ?'? ?: ????????, '? ''???' ???, ?' '? , ?? ?'? ?? ????????, '? ''??' ???. -'? ???? ????? ?' '???, '??'?'?? ' ''???' ? ?'' '????'? ?? ??+??', ?'?%? ?'????? ??? ????', ' ? ?'' ??'? ?? ?????+???'? ? ???+??, ' ? ?'' ??'?-???' ?? ??%?'??, ?'? ??'????? ???'?'?' '??'?? ??''', ' ? ???'??????? ?'' ?? ???''? ???''??': ?'??. ?? ?'?'?? ?+?'? ?? ????, ''???' ?' ?'? ????', ?+?'??? ? XIX ?'?''. ???'??? ?'?'?????, '??? ?'? ??????' ??'??, '??+??'', ???????'? ?????'???.

''? ?'???'??'?' ?? ?? ?'''?'?'???? ??''????' ??'??'?? ?+??? ?'? ??????: ??????????? ''???'? ?'? ?'?'??? '??? ?????, ????? ????'??? '?????? ?'?'??, +???? ?'? ?+? ??''?'??? ?? ''??+?'. ????+?? ??''?'??? ???????'? ? ??? ?? ?+ ???'?''??? ?'? ?'???'??'?'??. ??, ???? '???, ???'??? ??? '??+?, ????? ?'?'??': '??? ?????' ? ?' ?????? ???, +? ?????? ????'??' ' ???', ???'??? ??-

36 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'??'? ???%?'?'??'?? ???+?????. ??'? '? ?'?' '?+'??'? ??????, ???+??? ? '?-?'????.

?? ?'? ? ?'????, ??' ?+??? ??'??'?? ?'? ?'???'??'?'?? ???? ????. ' ?'''?'?'???? '???'? ??? 1960-: 1970-: ????? ?'''?'?' ???? ' +' ??'?? ??'?, '? ? ??'?'?? ?????'??. ????, ?? '?'?, ? +?'??? ?????? ?'' ??'? ?? ???, ?? ? 1960-: ????? +''? '????'?? ?''? ? ?? ??'?. ????? ??? +''? ? ?? '? ????'?. ????, ? ???'? ??'??, ??' ?+ ??'??': ?????': ? ?? ????'???'?:. ???? +'' ?+???'? ?'???????? ?'??? ???? ?:????????, ?' ??:???????? '??'?????, , :? '???, ? ???: ???: ???????: ?'?'?' '?????', ??'??'? ?'???'??'?'' ?'???'. ???'??? ??+:???? +''? ???? ???? ??-'? ??-?????? ?'?'???'?. ' ???? ???? ? '??'?'??? ?????'?' ?'?'???? 5 ? ?+?' ''? '??''' (1965, ??'???? ????? 1970) ?'???' ??? ?????'?? ??????? ????. ?? ??', ? '??''' ? ?''?' ? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ? '??'??? '?'???? ???????'' (1875) ??' ???'?'? '-?'?? ? '???'. '? ?'? ?? '?? ???, '?, :?'? ???? ??? ??'??? ????+??'?? ?' ??'?????? ???'????, '? ? ?? '???'????? ????' ?'????' '?'??? '???'??' ?????? ??? '?????? + ??+??'??', ??? ?????+? ???????'? ???????'???'? ?'??????, ? : ?'???? ???'??'?? ' ????? ??????.

'? ??'?? ????, '? ? -? '?? ? ?? ?''?, ???+'?????': ??? ???? '???''' (1966), ?? ????'' ?? '?', ?'? ?'??'' '?'? +????''?????' 6. ?? , ?? ?'?'???? ?+????'?? ? ??'?'??? ?????, '?? ????'?' ????? ???? ??'? ???'? ??:??''????? ?????, ??'??'? ???+??? ??????'??? ? ??????': '': ?'? ??'????? ??:??' ?'' ??? ???? ?'????, ????'??%? ????? ??'? '???????+'??? ? ???'?''????''. ?'???'?? +????''?????, ?'?' ?? ? '??, ?' ?'? ?'???'?? ?'?. ??????????? '????'?, ? +?'??? ?'?' ???'??? ?'? ??:??' ???'? ?+??? ?' '? , ?? ?'? '?-?'???? ojm, a ? +?'??? ?'?' ?+??? ?'? ?????? ?'????? ????'? 7.

'????+?? '????, ?' ?'???' '?-?'????, ?' '???' ????'? ??'??'?? ?'??'? ???; ????+?? ?, ?? ? ???+?'?' ????? ??? ? ?? ?? ??'?? : ??'? ? ??'?'. ???? '???, ????+?? '??'??? ??'??, ?????'' ??, ?? ??'??'?? '???+?'?? ????? ?????'? ? ????? +????''????? ?'?'??'. ? ? : ?'? '???' ??'?? ?'? ??????' ??????'?? ?+%: ?????'. (????'??, ???? ? ??? ?''?' ?'?+??? ?'?? ??'???, ??'??? ???'??' ? ????? '???'' ??????' ???'?? '?: ??' ???''': ?????.) '? ??'?? ?', '?, ????+?? ??'?, ?? ????'?'?' ??+?? ?'?, ??'??'? ??'

''? 2. ?'???'?? ??'??? 37

'?????:??'? ?????? '????'???? ?'. ' '?  ???? ?? '?????'?? '?  ????, '? ????'??? '???'. -??? ?? ??+?'???' ?'??'' ?' ? ?'?'?? ??, ?' ??? ???' ?' ? ???? '????'. ????? ? '??????? ??:??'??, ?'? ?'? '?'???'??'?' ? ?? ?'??? ??, , ?'?'????, ???? ?'??'?'?? ?' ???.

????? ?'  ?'???'??'? ??'? ? +?' ?????? ??'?', ?'???? ? ?? ????'?''?? ? '?'??? ???? ?'?'????, ?? '?? '?-?'???-?, '? ?? ''???'??? ?? ?'?'?? ? '??, '? ?? ????' ? ?????? ??'? '????: ?????, ??'? '??? ?? ??%?'?, ??'????? ???+???? ???'??. '??'??' ?'???'??'?'' ?'??? ? '?, ?? ?'' ?? ?:, ?' ? +'????? ?'?????, '? '???? ???'?? ?'??????'?? '??? ????; ?? : ????, '???? ???'?? ?'??????'?? ??'???, ??'??? ???%?'?'?' ?''??? ?? ??????'?? ?''??.

'??'????, ???????'? '?????' ???+??' ???'?? ???? ?'? +?'??, ???? ?'? ???? ? ???????: ??': ?'???'??'?'??. ' '??:?'?? ???' (1969, ??'???? ????? 1972) ???? ? '?? ??'?? ???'?, '? ????'???' ? ?'???'??' ????'?'??' ??+?? '????'?? ??'???, ? ???'?'?'? ? ??'??'? ???%?'?'?'?? ???'?', ? '????'?? ?'????, ???'???%: ?? ? ?'?'? ??????'. '?+' ????'? ?'? ?'?+?? ????'? ?'???'??'?'? ''???', ??+:???? '? ????'?, '? ?'???'??'? ???? ?? ??? ? ???'?? ??+??' ? '?????'?? '????'? ????? ??'? 8.

-? '??? ???? ?'??' ? ?'???'??'?'??, ???'?'???'??'?'?? 9. ' ???? ??? '????? ?'' (1967, ??'???? ????? 1979), ?????, ? ????: ?+?':, ?? ??'??' ????, '?-?'????, '??; ?? ?'???' ????' ???+%? ?'???'????? '??'?''. ' ????-'? ????', ?'???' ??, '?+? ??'? ?'???? ?'?' ??? ???? ?+? ? :?? ?'??? ?'?'??? ?' ???? ??'? ? ???+%???'?. ?????, ? ????'???? '?? ???, ??  ???? ?''?, '? ?? ??' ?'???'??'?'?? '?' ?? : ?????? ???', ?? ???? ???'??':, ?' ?? +????.

?' ???????' ? '??, ???? ' '??? ?'?'? ''???'??, '  ??, ????+?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ???, ??'?'?? ?'''???'??, +? ?'??'?? ??'? ''???'? ''?'????? ??'???. ?? ?? '??, '? ???'??''??? ''???'??'? ' '??', ????, '????'?, ??-???? ?' ?'?' ?? ?'?????? '????, ?? ???', ???? ?? ?'??' '???'??''??'? ''???'??'. ?????, ? ??'??'? ?? ???'?' ????, ??'??'??, ?? ?? ????, ?+%? ?'? '????-????? ??'?-???????? ''???'. ? ' ????? ?'???'?? ?'??''? ?'? '??, '? ????'?'??' ? +??'?'??? ??'?', '? ?'?'??' ?? '?'???' ?'? ?'??'?'???%?? ?????????? '???? ?????'??' ?? ?' ??, ?????, ?''??, '? ????'? ?????'??' ?'?????. ?, ????? , ?' ??'?'

38 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

????'? '???, '? ???? ???????'???? ????'?'???%?, '???? ?????'???%? ?'?????? '?? ? '???  ?? +'' ?????'??? +?'?????? ??????, ?? ???'??''????? '??????''??.

???''??? ?? ???'??'? ?''???? ??'??, ?'???' '???, ?? ?+?? ???'?? +' ? '?  ???? '??????; ?'? ??'?'??? '??? ? ???? ??' ?''???. ?? ??', ?? ???', '? ? ??' ???'??? ??'???'?? +'? ?''?, :?'? ?????'?? ?? +?'??? ?' '?? ?????'??? ?' ????? '???? ????''??'? ?' ? ??'?? ??'??????? 10. '?? ????' '??? ?' ??'?? ??'?'?? '?? ???: ??+?'???': ??'???? (1968, ???'?? ? '??'?: ''???'' ('Marges de la Philosophie'), 1972). ' ???? ?? ?????'? ???'?? ?? ?????, ?'? ?'?' ?'? ''??'? ?????? ?'??': ?? '??? ? '??, '? ??? '?' ?' ?'? ?'; ??? ? '???'???? ? ?'????, ??'????? ?? ?????'??', ? ?' ???' '?  ??? ??. ' '???: '??? ?''? ???'?%' ? ?+ ?????.

??? ?+%? '? ???:??' ? ?? ?' '???'?''???''?' ?? ???'?' ????'?'??' ??'?' , ? ?'???', ????+??'? ?? ?'?'? ?' ???'?%: ?? ?? ??:?? ?????????': +???': ???'????'????'?, '?: ?? '????'?'?-?'??'?'?', '????'?-???????'?', '??+:???'?-?????'?', '??-?????', '+???'??'?-?''?????', '????'?-??''?'?'. ??? ? ?????'??? ?+'?? ?'?%???? '???' ?? ??? '? ???? '??? ??', ?? ?'??'?? ???'?, '? ?? ????'??% :??'??'? ? ????? ?? ?????' ? ?? ???+' '?'???' ?? ??? ???'????'????'. ??'??? '?? ?+??? ? ??'?'' '?????'???', ??:??? ?? ?%'?? ???+??'?%? '????'?' ?' ??? ??'? ??'??' ? '?, '? ?'? ???? '????'' ???? ? ?+'?' '?? ??'?????'?? ????'????'??, ??'??' ?+'?? ????'??'?? ????'??. ????? ?? ???? ?+'?' ?????? ?'? ???? ????' ?''??? ??, ? ?????'?'??? ??'. ??, ? ?????, ?? '????'?'?-?'??'?'?' ?%'?? ??'???'? ?'??????? ???''?''? 'differance', ??????%? ? ?+ ?? ???: '?????: ?'??, ??'??' ??????'?? ?? '?'' '?'?'?'??'.

????'??, ? ?????, ??. ?? ?'?? ?''? ????'? '????'?'???%?' ? '?'??? ??'???, '? ?? ??%?'??' ? ??'? ??, ?? ?'???' ??????, '?? +'????? ???? ??? ? ????? ???, ???, ??'??' ? ????'?'???', ?? ??'???, '? ?? '??' ????? ??'???'?? ? ????'?'?? ??, ??? ??? '?'?'?'?'??'. -'? '??? ? ?'???' '?? +?'???? ?%, '? ?? ?' +?' ?????? ??? '? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??' ???'???. ?' ? ?'?? ?? ?'?'?? ?? ???'?. ?????? ?????'?? '?, '?  ???? ?? ?'???'. ''? ??? ?? ????'?'?' ??+?? '???' ?' ???, ??'??? '????'??': ??? '??? ???'?' ?'??'???? ? ??: ?????? ?'?? '???' (semen) '???'?'

''? 2. ?'???'?? ??'??? 39

(semantics). -'? ?'??? ????' ?? ??+''?' ? ??? '?????' (1972, ??'???? ????? 1982), ????, ??? ??'?? ?????'??. ' ????? ?'????, ?????: ? '??' (1972), '???, ?? ??', ?'???', '? ????? '? ?????? ?' ? ?' ??? ? ??' +''? ?'???'?? ? ?'??'. ?? ? ?'?? ???, ?'??? +', ? ??'?'?? ???'??'?. ?+? '???, ????, ?'???' ???, '? ??'? ?? ?:??'?? ? ????+??? ??'??. ? ??%?'??' ??? '????, '? ???? ??'?, ? ????? ' ? ? ???-'? ?????'?? ????, ?? '???'.

???? ???? ?'?' ''??'?? ?'? +?' ??????? ????: ''???'??-?'' ?? ?%'?? ? 'differance' ?' ? '?'??? ?? ?????'?? '???'? ??, ?? ???'???'?????' '???'. -??'??? ?????? ??-'+? ???'???'?????' ?' ?' ?'??'??? ? ????'????. ?? '???'???'?????'?' ?'?'?? ? '??, ?? ?' ?''??????? ?' ????: '??? ? ???: ?????'??? ?''?????%? ??'?', ? ? ???? ????' ???? ?? ? ??'?'?? '???? ??'???'????, ????'????; ?? '?????' ???? '?'?'?'?'??'.

''? ??'?-????????? ''???' ?+?' '??? ?+?' '???'???'? ?'? ??????' ??'??'?? ', '? ?????%?' ??'? ??? '.'.??-'? '?'??-???'??' * ???'???%? ?????? ? ?????? ??'? '???? ??'?11. -'? ??????? ? ? ??? ?? ? ????? '??? ????'????. ('??? ??'?', '? ????' ??????.) ?? ??? ?????', ?? ?? ?? :??'??', ?+?? ??'?'?? '?'?'?? ?'???? ?'?'??, ??'???? ??'??? ?'????'. ?? ??', :?'? ?? ? ?????' ?'???, ?' ? ??''?? ?%?%?, ?? ?' ?????????? ?'?'?????? ????. ??, ?? ????? ??, '?, ???'? ?? ?? ?'?'??', ?????.

'??? ???+??' ??'?, ???? '?' ???', '? ? ??? ?? ???'?' ??????? ??, ???+???, ???? '?' ?'???' ???? '?'??'?-'??'?' '????'-'?'''. ????? ?? ??? ??'??' ??'? ?? '?? ????: ??-???':, ??'???, '? ??'? ?'' '??' +?' ????'?? ???????'?????, ?' ????? ?' '??? ? ??'? ????' +?' '?? ??'? '?? ????'?'' ??  ??????? ??'?'? ?'??'????'; ??-?'??':, ??'???, '? ?? ?? ?'?'?? ???'?' '? ??:?? ?????????' ???'????'????', ?? '????'?-??''?'?', '?+'???'?-??'???', :?'? ?? ?'???' ????? ''?'-????'?'; ?-'?'?:, ??'???, '? ?? ?'' ??' ?'' ??? ??????? ?' ? ??, '? ?'??.

????'?? ??' ??:??? ???'?????'?'? '??-?????'. ?'???'??? '???, ?????? ? '???' ?''??, ???? ?'??'

* ??? '?? ???? ?'?' ???'? ?????? ????? ??? ??'? 'How to do Things with Words' ?' ??. ???? ? ??+??? '????'?. ''?. XVIII. M.: ???????, 1982. ???'? ????? ?'?? ?+?'', ???+'?????'? ??? ???? '?? ??????'? ???'?? ?? ????% ?'??' (? ??? ??'? '. ?+????. ?.: '??, ???-????, 1999. ?. 11?'135), ????????, ? '?? ??'?'?? +?' '??'?, ????? ?? ??? ????'?'?'?? ?? ?? ???'?. ?' ???. ??.

40 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?????'? ? ??? ?????? ?????'?', '? ????? ??'?'?? ???, ????????? '????? ???????; ?'? ???'?'?', ???'??? '??-?, '?????''??? ?'''?'?'??? +'???. ('?-?'???? ??''??? ??' +' ? ?'?? ?????? ?'????? ?''??). '?????' ???+?'' ???+? ?? ?'? '??? ?' ??'?'??? ???+?, '? ?? ???????? ??'?' ? '??, '? ????? ?????'??' ?. ?? ?? ?'?' ? ?+?' '? ????'?'??' (1967, ??'???? ????? 1973), '?????' ?'? ?? '?, '? ???' ????? (????? ??? ?''.77.), ?? '?????' '? ??+:???? ?'?'???'? ??? ?????. ????? ?? ?????'' ??'??? '???'??????' ?'? ?'??? ?'??? ?????? '????'?', ??'??? ?%' ??+?? ? '?'??? ????? '??-?????', ?? ? ????? '??-?????'. (-??? ?? ??? ?'?? ?????'?'?? ?' '???????? ?'''?'?', ?+?' ?'??????? ?'???? ?''??, ?' ? ??, ??'??'? ??%?'??' '?'??? ? '?? ??, ? ???? ??%'?? ? ????).

?+'?? ?????'?'?? ?' ?? ????? ??, '? ?'???' '???, ?' '?, ? ?'' ?' ????, ? ? ??????%?? '????'?'??' ?? ?'??'??, '?, ?'??? ?+?, ?? ????' ??? ??+?'???' ????? '? ?? ??+????, ?'??? ??, '? ????' ?'? ??, ???'?' ?? ????. (?'??' ?????'?, '? '?????? 'entendre' ??' '?'? ? ???, ????'???, ????'?, ?'? ?? ?'.) ????? ?'?' ?' ?????'?', '? ??????%? ?' ????'??? ????, ??'???'?? ????' ?? ??' ???'???'? ?'? '?? ?+???, '? ?? ??+????, ?''? ??????%??, ?+?? ????'? ?? ????. ?????'??? ????+???? ??????????? ??'?? ?' ?' ?????'? ??? ('??? ??' +' '????'?'?') '?' '?', '? ?'? ????? ? '??:???'?? ?'?'? ????'?', '?+' ? ??+:?????'?? ??' ????'??? ??. ?????+???'? '?'??' ???'???? ????'?'??? ? ??': ???'??': '? ??'?'?' ?? ???? ?'+??, ?? ???????'? (?????'?) ?'? (?, ????, '?) ?''?%?? ?' '???, '? ?' ???????? (??????)..., ????'? ?, ? ... '.?.'. ?- ????? '?' ???'????? ???? ?'? ?'???'?? ??????'? ?'? ??? ????'? ??'? '?, '? ? ?? ? ???; ?'????'? '?????? ?????' ?'' ?'? ??? ??????'? ????'? ?'? ? ??? '?, '? ? ??????.

-?'??' ????? % ??? ???'???? ?''?, :??'??? ?'? ?'?' '??? ??'?. ?? ??'?' ??????? ???? '??? '?'? ?' '??'??' ? ??, ?? ???? ? ?'????, ?' '? ?''?? ??'? ????????'?? ???'??? '? '?? .??'?, 1977'. ?'?-'? ??? +' ?????'?'?, '? ?'? '??'??' ?'? ????'? ????? ? ??'????? ??''????'. ?? ?'? ? '?. ?+?, ???'??? ????????? ??? ?'???'??'?, ? ?, ? ?'? ????? ? ????''. ?, ?? ??', +?' '??? ?' ??? ????' '?'???' ????? ? ????'??''???? '??? '???'. '?'???'??'?', ?? ?'?' '??? ??'? ???+?????, ?' '?'? ??? ?'??? ??+?'?????''. ????? ?? '??? ?' +?' ????? ??'?': ?'???'?-

''? 2. ?'???'?? ??'??? 41

?'?, ?? ?? ??? +' '? ??'?, ?' ?'? ??? ?????'???? '???'.

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

?' ??'?'? ? ?'???? ??'???'??? '??? ? ??'???, ????  '??? ?+ ????? '?'??? ??????? ???????': ??'?-??????: ?'?'''? ?'???'??'?'' ??????' :?'? ???'???-?+??? ??''???? ' ????? ????, ?'? ????? ? '?, '? ?? ????''?'?? ? '?? ?'???'????? '????'?; ?? ??', ?? ?''? +'' -'': ????, ?????? ???? (1951) ??? ???????'? ????. ????'??????? '????'? ???????? ?? ????: ?'?????: ?'?' ? ???? ???? ???? ? ???????? ?'???'????? '????'?, +? ?? ?'???' '? '??? ???, '? '????'??? '??? ???? ???'?'? ?'??' '????'?? ??%???' ?? ????% '????'??: ??%???'? +?' ????? ??????, ????? ???'??? ?? ????% ?'??, ?'?? ?' ?? ????% '???. ?? ? ?? ?? ????? ?+?? ????? '?? ???'??????????? '????'?, ?? ???+??? 14.

'?-?'??':, :?'? '??'????'?' ':, ?'? ?????' ? ?+'????? ?'?, ???'?'?' ???%? ??'? ? ??'?????: ????????, ? ???: '?'?'??: ? ?'?' (1976) ?? ? ??'?? '???????? ???'????? ?'?, ?'? ?'? ?? ??%?'???%? ??'?? ?' ''????', ? '???+'???' ?'? ?????? ??'?????. (-' ?????%? ? ?'?'? ? '+??' ???' '????'??? ????'??? ?+?????'.) ?? '????'?? '??, ?? ?? ????'?'?' ? ????? ???+'??????? ? ?+?' '??'???? ?'???'??'' (1957) ??'' ?' ? ??? '????'' '?? ??'???' (1965), ??'??'?? ???''??? '???'????'?, ?'?'?????'?, ???????'? ? ????' ???' ? ?''??%? ?????'??' ?-????? ?'?, '?+' ????''???'? ??': ?'??''??': '?????: ?'???'??'?'??.

??????: ?'???'??'?'?? ???'?'? '? ???'???? ????-?? ?' ??? '?'?+??'?' '????:???'?'? ?'???'???'. ?? : ????, ?'? ?? ??'' ? ?'???? ?'? '?, '? ???? ??'' ? ?'-

42 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???? ?????, ???? ?' ? ?'???? ?+%?'?. '''?+??? ?'???'??', ?? ????'' ?????? ? ?''? '?'??? ??'?? ?' ? '????'?' (1966), '?'? +?'??'??, ????????'??%? '???, ????'??%? ?? ???'???' 15. ' ?'' ?' ?, ????:???'?? ?'???'?? ??'?'?? ????'? ''????? ???'', ??'??'? ?' ???? ' ?''??, ??, ?????, ???? ? ?''??, ?? ?'?-'? ?????': '':??'!'. '????:???'?? ?'???'??' ?????'?? '?'?+???? ?'???'????' +'????? '?? '???'?????, ?? ???+????? ??'?, '? +'????? '???'????? ?:???'? ???'?, ????'??%? '?, ?? ?? ??????'??. ('?????'??' ? ??' '????? ?????'??': ????'? ? ?+?????' ??, ???? '??? ?????' 'Enter', a ? 'Come in'. * -'? ?????? ?'?'????? :??'?; '?, ?????, '?+???? ????? '?????'' ????+??' ?'??' ????.) ???'??? ?'?+??? ?'???'?? '?' 'Come in!' ????' +' '? ?'??'', ?? 'you' ?'??' 'to be', ??'??' ?'??'?'???' ? ????:???'??? ?'???'??.

????'?? ? '?, '? ?'? ?' '??? ????? ? ?? ???, ?????? ?? ???? ????? '?'?'?? ? ?'?' ??  ?'?'?? ?' ???'????? '????? '?'?+??? ?'???'??' '????:???'?? ?'???'??', ?'?' ?? ':???? ???+????, ?? '? ?? '?? ???, ?' ??'??? +?' ?? ?'? ??: '? ?' '? ?? ????'??? ????' ?? '????? ?'???'??'?'', '? ', ?'? ??', '? '?'?+??' ?'???'??'' ??'??'?? '?'?+??'?' ? ?''???? ??'?', ?????'? ????:???'?': ?'???'??, ? ?'' ?' ?:, '?????', ???', ????'?? ?' ?'? ? ?'?? '.?.' ?? '? ? ?''; '???'???, ???%??? ??'?''??? ????:???'?'? ?'???'???, ?? ?? ????, ??' +''? ?'?'?  ?????'????, '????????%?' ?+?+%???, ?? ??'????? '???. ' ???'?''????', ?? ?? ????? ???', '???'??? ??'?'?? ?+?' ??'?? ??+?'???? ?'??'?? '????'?'. (?????? ???'?+'?' ?'??? '????'?' ? ??? ?????? ??'?', ??'?? ? ? ????? ? ??'????? ???'?? '???'???.)

???????? ????, '? '?????? ?'???'??'?' ?????? ??'?' ??' ?'? '?'?+??': ?'???'??' ????????. ????? ?????? ???' '?? ????????, ??????, ??  +??' ???'?''??'? ?'? ???. ???????? ?'???'??'?, ?? ?? ????'?'? ? ??'???????? ??? +?'???? ??'???'?? ??? '???? ''??''?? '?'?' (1933), ?'??? '?????''??? ?'? ?????? ????'?'? ? ?? ?? ?+ ???%? ???'??? ????'. (' ???: +?' ???: ?+?': ''??''?? ?'?'?' ?:????? '??? ???, ?? '????'???' ? '???: ??:?'?? '???', ???'??? ?? ??' '?-'? ???? ???????.) ??? ?'??? +:????'????? ??'?? ''??''?? ????'?' ???'?+'? ?'? ?? ?%-? ???? ???+'???? ?? ? ?'??'; ?? ?? ????, ?? '??-* ? ?????? ?'? ' ????? '?' ??????'?? ?? '':??'!'. ?' ???. ??.

''? 2. ?'???'?? ??'??? 43

'' '?, '? ?? ?%'. ' :????? ??'??? ???? ''' ????' '? ''? ? ???? ???''? ?'? ? ?+'???; ?'??'?? ?'? ?'??'???? ? ?????+' ?'?' ??'??; ???'? '??? '?+' ???? ''? ? ????, ?? ?'??'?' ?????+?, ??'??? ??'?'?? ?%?? ?'? ?'??? ???'?? ' ?'? ???'?? '?, +??? ?? ?? ??'???. ?' ?'? ?'???'??'?'?? +''? ???????? ????'?? ?''''??? '?????? ??????? ?'?'???? ??' ?????'????? ?????, '? ?'? ???????? ????? +'' +:???? ? ?'' ''??''??, '? ?? ??? ??????'?? ???'??' ?? ?? (1959) ? ?:+:????'???? ???? '.?.????? ''?+'??? ?????' 16. ????? ?'???'??'?'', ?????? ?'???' ? ???'???? ????? ???'???? ????' ????????'??%: ?????+?? ???'??, ??'??' ?'??' ? ?????' ?????? ????, ? +??? ? ??????', ?'??' '?? ?+???, '? ?'? ? ??'???'?? ?'???'?? ?? ??+?'?????? ??'', '?'??'??', ???'?????: ? ???.

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

'??'? '??????' ?'??''?' ?? ???'?' ??????? '???'. '??', ??'??'? ????'?' '????', ?? ???', ?:???%?? ? ??????? ?????, ???? ???????' +?' ?????? ?+??????. ? ????%?? '??????' ???' ???%?'?'?'?? ?'+?? ??? ?'?': ?????': ????'? ? ????? '?: ??'??, ?? '????'?' ? ?'???? ???????? '??'. (?? ?'?' '????'?'?' ? +??'?'??? ??'?'.)

????'? ??' ??? ?'?, ?'???' ??????, ?' ??'?'? ? ? ???'???, ??'??' ??'??'?? '?????'?'?', ?? ????'?? ????'??'?, ??'?'? ???'???, ??'??', ??????, ????? ? +???' ??????', ?? '? ? ?? ??'??'?? ???????? ???'??'? ? ????'???? ?'????. ' ????'???? ???'??' ???'?? ??' +''? '?????'?'?' ? '?? ??'?', '? ? ? ???? ? ?''?' ?????? ??, ????????? ??????%?, ? ?' ?'? ???'?? ????' '?+??'???' ' ????'???? ??+??. ? ?????? ?'????', ???'?? ??' +''? ????'?? ???'??'?, ?? ?'?'? ?'??'?, '? ?'??''? +'' +'

44 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

? ? ???'??? '????'?' ??; ?? ?' +' ?? ?????''??'?. '????'-'??'? ?'????' '?'??? ????'?? ???'??' ???'??? ? '?? ??? ? ?'?'????'. ?''? +''?, ????'? ?' ?'? ? '??? '???'???' '???, '? ?????? ?'?' 'parole' (???).  ????'?? ?'?' '?, '?, ?? ?'??? ????????, ??'?'?? '????' 17.

?' ???'?' ?' ??? '??? ??' '??? '?' ???' ??? ?? '??? ??'. '??'?''???, ?' ?+'?? ??'??, '? '???' :??'??' ?????+???'? '??? '?-'+? ?????'?. ?????, ?? ??'?' ??????, ? ?'? ?'?????? ???? '?? ??' ?' ?????: '?? ?', ?? ?????'? ??-??'???' ?' ?+?? ???'?? ? ???+'? ?? '??? '?', ???+'?, ??'??? '? ?? ??'?'?? ????'?. ???'???''? ????'? ?'''?? ????''? ?'? '????? ??' ???''? ?'? '? ??'? ?+????'?, ???? ?? ?????+? ?''? ????'?? ???'??' ????'?? ????'??' ????'???.

???? ?'??' ?????'?'?, '? ???''? ?'? ?+'?' '?? ????'? ???? '??? ??' +'?'?? '??'???' ??'?, ??' ? '?'??? ?'?, ?? ????'? ???, ? +??? ?????+?'? ?+????'?, '? '?? '??'????'?, ??'?'?? ' ??'. ?', ?? ???'?, ?'?, '? ?+??? ??'??' ???? ???'? ?'??? ?:???'? ?+???. ??'??, ?? ? ?????+? ??'? ??, ????' ???' ?'??? ?'?. ?', ?? ?'???' ???'?''?, ?????? ??%?? '??? ??'?'?? ?? ?????+???'? ??'? '???, '? ?? ?', '? ?+??? ? ?' ???'. (-??? ?? ' ????', ?' ?' ??? '?'?' ?'???? '???'?', ?? ?'? ? ????? ??' ???'?' ??????.)

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

??? ?+???, '???' '??? ? ????'? ???'?' ? ?? ?????+???' '?-'? ?????'? ?? ??? ?'; ??? ??'?' ? ?+? '? ?+?'??''?-

''? 2. ?'???'?? ??'??? 45

?'??, '? ?? ?' ? ???? ??????? ????'??' ????'. ''?????? ?????+???'?' ?'?'?? '????'??'??' ?' +? ?????? ? ??'?' ?' '??? ??? % ???'?'? ?????+?? ? ???', ????? +?'??'??? ????'???? ?'???'???, ??'??? '? ??'?'?? ? '??'?? ?????+???'? ? ???'?? ?'???''. ??'? '???' ?' ?' ?'? ??? ?'?' ?+?? ??''??': ?'???'?? ??''??': ???????. ????+?? '?-?'?????, ?????? ???' '?, '? '?-?'???? ?'?' '???+?'?? ????? ?????'? ? ????? +????''????? ?'?'??'. '????'??? '??? ???? ????''? ?' ???+?'?. ?'?, ?? ??'?' '?+?, ?' ?'? '??'? ??'; '????'??? '???, +??? '??? '??????? ?'?'??, ???'?'?' ??' ????'????, ? ??'???? ??:?'??, ?? ??'?' ?????? 18.

'?'?' ' ?' ?'??? ?????'?'?, '? ??'???? ?+??? ??'??? '???????+'?' ?'? ?+??? ??'?????? ?'??, '?????? ?+??? ?' '????????? ?????, '? ?'; ??'???? ?+???, ????''?????? ?? ???, +??' ??????? ?????'? ??-'?????, ? ??-??'???. '???' ?+??, ?? ????????, ?????'???; ?? ???'?? ?????+?'? ??'??? ?????'? ??-??'???, ??-'????? ' ??-?'???, ?' +??' ????'? ? ???'?'?'???%? ?+%?'?. ?????, ?' ?' ?????'??, '? ?? ???? ?? ?+'?' '?????'???? ????'???', '?? ????'?, '?+' ???+% +''? ????'???, ??'? ?'? ??????, ??'??% ????'??' ????'? ?? ??????' ?'? '???19. '+??? ? ??' ?'? ?? ????, ?' ??' ???'??? ?????? ? ?+?' '?'? ?'?'?', ?' ????? ?'?? ?? ???'?? ??'???, ?? ?? ??'? ?'?, '? ????'? ?'??? ?'? ??'? ?'? ????'???? '????, ??'??%?? ???? ?'?'?' ?'?'. ??'??'? '?? '????'? ???', ?? ?'+?' '?????'???' ???'? ? ????'? ???'?????? ? ?'?. ?????'??? ???? ???'? ? ??' ??'????? ??'', ?? ? ??? ????? ??'??' '??? ????? ?'?' ? '?? ??'?', '? ?????+? ?'???'? ???'??'? ???? '????'??? ??'' ?? '????????'? ???'?'?', '.. ?? ????'?? ????'??? ???'??. -'?' ?', ???' ??????, ??'?' ?+?'?? ???'???? ? ?'? '???'??. ??'? '?? ?????' ???? ???, ?? ??: ?'?:, ?'??? +', ???'??'?? ??? ???????'?? ????????? ????'? ?????. ? ? ??? +' ??%?'???'? ?'?, ????%? ???? ???? ???'??? ????????, ?' +' ?? ??%?'???', ?' ? ????' +' ??'??? ?? ? '?? '????'??, ? ???? ?' ??? ??'??? ???? ??+?'???'? ?'???. ???? '? , ?'' ??, ?' ???????+'?' ??'??? '?+??? ???'? ????'? ??'????: ???'??: ???', ?? '?'??? ?' ??? ??'?'?? ?'??'?? ??????? ????'?.

'????'?? '?? ???????? ??'??' ??'? ???? ?? ???? : ?????, ??? ? ???'?' '???'?? ? '????'?'. ??-

46 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

? ??, ?? ???? ?'????', '? ??'??? +???????'. -'? ????'??? ? ?+?????' ????????; '??'? ???', ?? ?? ????, ??????? ???' ????+?' ?'??''??' ????, '????% ? ??' ?+% ????'. ?? ?? ?????'' ??:???'? ?????'? '?????''??'? ????? ???? '????'?, ???? '? ????'? ?' ?'? ? ????'? ???''???, ?+????''??? ???, '? ??'??? ? ?' ?' ?'? '???', ? '???'??', '? ??:?'??? ? ?????'???? ??: ? ?????+? ?+????'?, ?? ?+??? ??'?? ????? ?????? ?'??, '? '????'??? '??? ?' ?'??'? ?'? ? ?????? ?'?'??. ????? +'????? ???? ???? ??'? ????? ???'????? ??'???: ?? ??:? ????'? ??????': ??''??': ?'???'??, ??'?'??%: ?????? ? ??????? '???? ??: ???'??, ? : ?'?'??? ?'???'?, ?????? ???? ??'? ??? ?'?? ? ''???'?. ?? '? ?? ?'???'??'?'?? ???'?? ????'??'? ???'.

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 47

''? 3. ?? ?????????? ? ???????

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

???'??' ????? ???????? ???'''?? ??????'??'? ?? ?'?? ? ???'?? 2. ' ?+?' '?'???'?? ???'???? '??' (1963) '. '. ? '. ?. ????? ???'???' ? ????? '+?'??'??? '???'' ???'???? '?? ?'?'???': ?'???. ???'??? '???, ? : ?????, ???? ?+????'? ????'??' ??' ???? ??????%??: ?? ?? ?????' ???'????'? ???'??': ???'???, ????'?? ? : ????'???? ???'????'?, ?? ?? ??' ??'???'?, '? ???? ???'? ? ??'?'?? ??'??? ??????? ?? : ????? ??'?????? ?' ?? ?? ??', ?+?'???? ? ?'???? ???'??'? ?'????, ????''? ??? ??????': '? ??? ???:??' ?'? ?????? ???'??? ??, ??????%? ??-??'??? '??? ??'' '?? 'Colourless ideas sleej furiously' ('??'?' ? ???' ??'???) ???'????, :?'? ?? +??? ? ? '?? ??? ??'??? '???'??, ???'?? 'The boy hit th ball' (?'?? ???' ?? ???) ???' ???%? '?  ???, '? ? ???'?? 'The ball was hit by the boy' (??? ?? ??? ???? ?'? ???), ?? ?? ?'??, '? 'ball' ???'?+'?'?? ??? ? ? ?? '??+? ? '??? ?'? ?????'?': '??'. *

''? ?+?????? ????+?': ??'?? ????? ? ?'?'???' '?? ???', ???'??% '???'??: ??????' '?''''?'. ???'? ?? ????' ????'?'??' ??+?? ?+% ????'?, ??????' ? ?????????' ???'???''????', ?? ??????? ????'?'?? ??:???? ?' +? ' ??????? ? +?' ????? ????'?. '??? ??'??% ????'?, ? : ????, ???'?'??' ??' ???'???''????'. '?''''' ?'?? ?' ''?, '? ???'?'?' ????+? ? ?? ['??????] ??')

* ???'???? 'ball' ??' ? '?'??? '??' ' '??', ?? '+''. ?' ???. ??.

48 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'????'?, ?' ????'??? ?'??? 'bachelor'. ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????+??': ??? * +???' ???'???'??? '? ???'?? ????' ?' ' : % ???? ?'??' '???????'?', ?' ?? ''???', '???', ????? ? ?''''? '????? ? +'' ?''. ?????'??'?? ?'? ?'???%? ?+???: :?'??'?? ?'> ??%?'?''??? ?'> ('???) ?'> (???) ?' [?'? ????? ? +'' ?']. ???'?? ????' ''???' '???', ?? ???? ????? ?, ??' '??  '?????''??? ?? ?'? ?????? ?'?, ?? ??'????? ???? '??%?'?''???'; ?' ? ???? ???'? ?????'?? ?? ? ???'???? ?'?, ??? ? ??'?? ?. ' ?'' ?' ?: ? ???-'? ?'?'??'? ?''''? '??? ??' ????? ? ??????'???. ???'??? ???'??? '???, ? : ?????, ??'?? ????'????? ??? ???'??? ?????; ???? ?' ????'????? ????'??', ??'?'?? ' ???'?? ???'??'? ? ???'???? ?'?. ('???'?? ???'' ??'??'?? ??? ??:?? ? '?'???'??' ??+?' ?'.)

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

* ' ??'????? ?'? ?'??? 'bachelor' (:?'??'??), ???? '???, ?' ??? '+?'??' '?'??'. ?' ???. ??.

** ' ????' ?? ?', ?'?'????, ?+ ??'????? ?'?. '? +? ???????? ?? ??????? ?+ ??'???: ?'??: ?????' ?? ??????? ? ?????: ?'??:, ?????, ?'??' ????'?, '? '??? ? ????? +'' ?'????'???? ????''??? ? ??'?????? ?'??. ?' ???. ??.

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'?

??'??? +'' ?''? ?? ??????, ?? ???'???? ?' ??+:??? ?''?'? ???'??' ???+????' ????:???'??? ?'???'??', ????? ? ??. ' ???'?????: ?'? ???????: ?'?+??'? ?????? ???? ? ???'?? % ?'?+, ?'? ????:???'?'? ?????? ?'???'?? ?'?+ ?  ?'?+??'? ?'???'?? +?' ????:???'?'?. -'? % ??? ???, ??'???? ?????? ? ??? ????? ?'?'?? ?' ?': ????+?': ???'? * ' ????. ' ???? ????' ??'? ???' +?' ???'? ''???'??? :? '?, +??? ????'???? ???'? ???? '?'? ?'?'', ????? ?? ??'????? ?????'??' ??? '?+??? ?'?'?????? ?'?. ?'???'? '? ???'? '???? ??? ????'? ?????' ???+'?? ??? ?+'? ?': ?'??? ? ?'? ?'?' 3. ' ???'???%? ?' % ?????? ? ?'?? ??'

'?' ?????''??? ? ????? ??'???' '?, '?, ?? ?'???'? ????, ?? ? ??'??' ????? ?'?'??'? ??????? ??'?. -'? ????'??? ? ???''???; ???? ??%?'???' ?'?' ? ???'?? ?'???''??? ?????' ? ???'???? '??. ?? 1960-: ?????, ????? ??'?? ?? ?'???????? ??'?, '? ????'] ''? ???'' ????????, ???'? ?????'?? ?'?? ? ???'? ??'??? '????', ?'? ??'???? ??'?' ???, '?, '? ' ???''???, '? ?? ????????, ??+''?' ''???'?? ? ???? '???''', ?' ' ??? ? ????+??': ???': ???' ?????, ???? ?'?* ?. ???? ??'?, '? ???? ?????'?? ???' ??+?? ?? '? (] '???'? ?+'?????? ?'?, ??'??' ?'+??'?' ? ?'????? ?? ???: ?? ??, ?????? ?'??? ?', '???''??? ???? ':????? ? ?????' ''???'???? ?????'' 4. (? ??, ???? ?' ?:??'? ?? ???? '???''??'?'.)

'??' ??? ? ??? ???'?????? ?'? ?????? ??: ?????' ?': ??'???''? ???'? ?' ?? ???'?? 5. -'? ??' ???'! ?????'? ?'+????. +?'' ???'?? ??'?''??? '????? '?'! ??????????? ??. ?? ??? (?? ?+'), '? ? ??+?? ??? ? ? ?? ???. ?? ?''? +?' ''???'????? :??'? ?' ???? '???, ?? ????? ? ?' ?'? ?'?'??: ???'?? ???'?? ?? ????'???? '??? ?????'?? +'' ???+'????' ???' ??? ???? '????'??? ''?? '?' (1974). -'? ??? ???'? ???'??: ? ???'?? ?????'??' 3t ? '?: ??'?? ?'?'?, ?? '??? ????'?; ?? ?''? ? '??? ; ??'?''???? ?'?? '??' ??????? ??????, ? ???? ?+? ?' '???'??'? ????'??, ???? '?'??? '? ? ?+?'??'?, ? ??%??'? '???'??'? ???''??'??. ?? ??? ???'??? ?' ci '? ? ?''?, ?'? ?? '?? '?????''??'? ???????, ?? ?????? ? '? ???? ' ???'??'? ????''???''???? ???'??, ? ?+?%??? ? ???? ?????? ??? ?'? ??? ??'?'?? ???'?. ???? ???'?

* ???'? ?' ????????? ?????? +??'??, ? ???????? ??'?' ??' ?'? ?? '????? ????. ?'???. ??.

50 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??'?? ??? ?? +?' ?'??' ? ?'?'? ????'??????' ?+?'', ??'??' ?? ?+%' ???? '''?? (:?'? ?'? +?'???? ??????, +'' +' ' ?? ????-?+??? ????'), ????''???, '?+' ? ?: ?? +?'?? ?''?? ? ?'??? '''?. ????' ?? ?????'' ??'? ???????''?, ?? ????? ??, ?'?' ???? ?' ?'? ??????? ???? '?? ???: ?'?? ????? ???? ?''?. '????? '?? ?+???, ?' ??' ?? ????'??'?, ?' ??? ?'??' ''?'. ' ?' ?'? '?, ??'? ? ?? ? '???  ???'+ ?' ?' ?'??? ????'?'? ?? ????'? ?'? ????????? ''???'. ?? ?'??, ?'???? ? ?'??? ?'?, ?? ???? ???? ????? ??????'???'??? ? ??'??? ??? ???? ??'???''?. ???'??' ?? ?????, +??? '? '????'' ' '???, ?????'' ?? ?+?'?. ?? ?'? +?'????'? ''???'?? ?? +'', ??' ? +???'???? ??'?', ??''?? ?????.

??? +?'???, ? '? ???? ????? ???''?'? ? ??'??? ?+?? ?? ??, ?'? ???? ?? '? ????'?, ? ????%?? ??'??': ?? ?'?'?? : ???%?'?'?. ?? ?? ?'? ???? ????'?????, ?????'??% ???'???? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?'?????? '??, ?'?'?? ? ? ?''?: ?? ???'?, ? '?? '?', '? ?? ? ??+'??? ???''???? ??? ?'?' ???'?%?? ???, ??%?'???%? ?'? ??? '????'?, '???? ''???'? ?'?. ????? ?'? ???? '? ?? ??''?, ?? '?+? ??', ?'??'?? ????'?'? +?' ??????, ? ?? ?'? ? ???? ?', ??'??, '? ??'?''' ???'?? ???? ? ??'??? ?'? ?' ????'? ? '???'??????'? ????'??, :?'? ?? ???'?? ?+'?? ??' ? ?????? ??' ? ??????? ?? ???'???''?: ?? ? '???': '????'?'???', ?'?'???? '????' ?????''. (???'???% ???''? ????????'????'? '???'??' ???'?'?'?? ??? '???? ???'?? '???? '????'?? ????' ?+'?? ????? ':, ???? ?'??' ?????'? ??'??? ?'?????'? ''? ???'??.)

'????'??? ''???'?' +'', ?? ? ? ??', ???:???%? ???? ?'? ??+??? ?+?' ???'??; ??????, % +?'?? ?????' +' ''???'????? ''???'?'. ' +''?: ??? ''???'? ?+'?????? ?'? ''???'? ?????'?????? ?'?, ??'???? ?'??' ???'????' ???'''?, ???'?? ? ?????'??, ???? ??? ??'?, ?' ?????, ????? ? ?????, ? ??'??'? ?? ????-'? ?????'?? ?+?'', ??-????, ??'????? ?? '???' ? ????'? ???:%??. ' ?'?? ?????? ?? ????? ? ???' ???? ??.

?? ?? ????, ?'?? ? ??'??? ''???'?, ? ?'? ????''???''????? ????? ???'? ?+'?????? ?'? + ???'????? '???'??????? ?????'?????? ?'?. ?? ?? ??'?' ? ?''? '? ????? ????'??': ''???'??: ??%???'?' (1970), ? ??'???? ?? '????'??? ?' ?+?' '??? ???? ? '?????'? ''???'??? ???????, ?????, ???????? ? ???'???': ???':, ?? ???? ?'?'?'? ?? ??, ??'??' ?'? ?'?'?? ??????'?'?, ???? '? '??-

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 51

?''? ?' ?+'?????? ??'?????? ?'? ????'?'??' ''???'??? ?'??' '? '?+'???'? ??'???? ?'? ? ??'?'?? ???'?'? ????'??? ?'??? ?'? ''???''.

??'??? ?? ?????? ?': ???: ????'?? ?? ???'?''??? ?'??' ?' ???: ???''?????: ?????'??????. '?'????'?? +?' ???: ???'???''? ??? ????????'? ?'? ?????' ? ?'?? ????%??? ? ?? ??????'?'? ????'?'??? ?'? '???'. ???'??? ??-??? ??'?', '? ?????, ?'? ???'''?? ???'? '???'?? ?????????? ?'?' ? ????%?? ''??': ?'????', ??' ??'? +??' ??'? '?+'??????? ?? ?? ???+????? ?'??? ?'?', '? ?'?' ???+?????'? ?'? ?'?'' ???'??? ???? '?'?'?????'?', '???'???????? ? ????? ???+????? ? ?????'???'? ?'?.

?'????? ????'? ?'? ???. ''??? ?????'?????? ?'? ???? ?'???? ?????''? ?? ?'?????. ?' 'V0' ?'?' ??? ????-'+? ??????? ?????'?????? ?'?, '?, ???'??? ????'?, ??? ??' ??'? '?'??? ????'??' ??'??? ? ???'???: ?????? ?'? ?' '? , ?? ? ?'??'???? '?+? ?' ??? ??'? '6:', ?? ? ':+'. ' ?'' ?' ?:, ?'??? 'yellow' * ???? ??'?'?? ??%?'?''??'?, ???? ?' ??'?''??'?, ???? ?' ?'??'??. ?? ? '??? ?'? ???? '???'??'? ?+??? ?:??'???'? ?? ??'?????? ??'?? ???? '???, ???? ????????' ?'?? ??'??'?? ?'?? ' ???????'?, ' '? ????? ??????????. ????? ???' ??'? +''? '???, '?+' +''? '?'????'? ? ???? ?' ? ??? ?????'? ? '???'' '?'????? ???'? ?'  ????'? ????%?, '? ???'? ?' ?'???? ? ??'???? ?'????' ?'????'? ?'??'???, '? % +?' ??'? ??'?'?? '?' '?', '? '??? ?????????? ?'? ?'? ????' ? ?'?'? ? '??, '? ?? ?'??? ?? ???? ?'??'??? ?'???? ??????' ???? ? ??????, '??? ?? ? ???? ?' ?'? ? '?. ????? ??'?'? ????: ???'?? ''??? ??'?'?? ??''?'? ''???'??' ?'' ?' ', ?? ????? ??, ?' ?+'?? ?'?, '? ?'' ?' ???'?? ''??? ??'?'?? ''???'??', ?? ''??? ??'?'?? ???'? ''???'??', ?'?'????, ?'.

' ??' ????+?': '?'?? ???'? ????????, ?? ??? ???'?? ? ???? ?''? '???'???? ?? '???'??'? ?'?' (1970) ?'?'? +???????????? ?'?'?, ??'???'?? ???'??? ???? ???? ?????????? ??, '? '??%?'??' ???-'+? ??? '??'??? ?' ??? '???'??'? ?'?'???'? ?'??'. - ???'? '' ?? ?'??? ?'??? ? ? ???? ?+?' '??+:?????'? +?'??'?': ??%???'? ?? ???'???? ?'' (1951) ???' ??'???? ?+?? ??'??? ???'? '???'????': ?'??? + ????: ??'+?? ??', '? ? ??%?'??' ????'????? ?'? ??? '?? ?'?? ?'?'???'? ?'??; ? ? ???'?' ????'??? ???' ? ?'?? ??: ?'? ??'?????? ?'? 6.

* ???'???? ?'??? 'yellow' ?' ???: ''?, '''?, '''?. ?' ???. ??.

52 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??, ?? ?? ?'??????? ???', ?? ???? ?'? ??''?, '?'??? ?'+???? ? ?'????? '???? ????'??' ????'??? ?????'?'??' ?'??. ?????'???? ???' ?'? ?'?'?????? ?'?, ??+?' ?? ? ??? ???????, '?'? ? '???  ?'?? ?????? ?????''??'?, ?? ?????? ?????'. ???'?? , ????'?, ???'?? ?' :?'? ? ?? ?''??:, ?? ?? ?????, ?? '???'? '?'??? ''????' ??'?????? ?'?' ?' ??????'??'? '  ??' ????' ? ??'???? ?'? ? '?? ??''? ?'? ?? ???'?''? ?????, ? ?? ?????''?.

?????? ?? ???'???'' '? ????'?? ??+?''? '???'???? '??? ?'?'???': ?'???. ????? ???'?? ? ???'?? ? ?? ? '??, '? ??'????? '??? ??'?'??, ? ?????? ?', ??'?? ??:?'??; ? ?? ??'??, ?? ?'? ??' ?'?'?'?, '???'??? '??? '???'???? ??'?'. '?' '???, ?? ?+???' : ? ??????+???' ???'?, '? '???????? '?? ?????? ???'? ??'??? ??'?'?? ???'??? '?? ?'?'' ?' ', ? +?' ???? ??'?', '?'?' ?? ?????'???? ?'???''. (?+?, ???'??? ???'??, ?'????'?? ?? ?????? ? ???'????, '?'??? ?' ???'?? ?'???'????' ????'??'? ?+???). ??????? ??? ?'?' ?+????' ??: ??+?'??? ???''??????? ???'?. '????'?? ??'?? ?'????' : ? ?? ?? ?+, '?'??? ? '?? ??, ? ???? ?? ??' ?'???? ? ?????+???' ???'??? ?'???'? ?'?? ?'? ??+?? ???? ?'??' ???'???. ?????'?' ?'??' ???'??? ?' ???? '?: ??????????+?':, ??, ?????, ''?? '' ??' ??????, ? '? '?+' ???'? ??' ?' ???'??' : ???? '?'??? ??'???, '? ??????' ??????' ? '??, '? ?'??' ????+???? ???'???, ??' ' ??? +''? ?'??'? ? '?? ?'?, ?' ???????? ? ??%?'??'.

?'???? ??:?'???, ???'?? ??'??, '?? ?+???, ???'??'? ?'? ??'?????? ?'? ???'??, ??'??? +??' ?'?'?'???? ?? ????? :??'??. ?' ?'''??? ???%?'?'? ???'? ?'?' ? ?????????? ??:, ?'? ???'' ??+?? ?? ?'??'??: ??'???? ?'? ??+:???? ????'?'? ? ?'?'??????? ?? ?'? ????? ?? ???? ???'??'? ???:???%? '???'??'? ?'?. ???'?? ?'''?? ?'??'?'? ?+ ?' ?. ?' ???'?''? ?? ???? '??? ??'?? '?'???'??'? ???'???'???????' (regimentation) ???'??? ?+'?????? ?'? ?'? ??'???'?? ?'????': ?: ?'??'??. ''? ?'?? ' ???????, ????% ? ??'? ???''?? ????????' ???'???, ??'?' '?'?? ? '?????? '???', ?'? ?'??'?? ??'???? ???'???'??? ??? ?+?'??? ?'? '????: ????'?' ?' '??'?', '?? ????? ?? ???', ''', '', '?'...'?...'. ?''???, '? ?'??'?? ?': ???'??? ?'????'?? +'????? ?'? ????'?'? ????? ?' ?????' ????: ????%:?? ? ?': ???'???: ?'???; ??''??' ?'????' ?'??'??, ?? ?' ??', ?'+??'?'?? ? ?'????? ?? ?'? ?'????.

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 53

' ???? ???' ??', ?? ?' '? ??', '??? ????' ??????'? ?'???? ???'?????? '???'???? '???, ??????, ? ?'???', ????'?''??' '???? ???'??' ?' ???'??', ???'??', ???'??, ?????' ???'??? 7. ????, ?? ?'??'? ?'?????? ?'???'????? ???'???'???????, ?'?' ????'? ? ?'?, ?'????, ? ?????, '? ???'??? '??? ? ??????' ???'????? '?: ?'??'??': ??': '????: ????, ?? ???''?? ????'????. (?? ?? ??'?', ?'????? '9 ??+:???? +?'?? 7' ? +??' ???'??'? ?'?'?, '? '?'? ?'?' ??+:???? +?'?? 7', :?'? ?'? ?'?' ????'?? 9.)8 ????? +?'????'?? '????? ??'???'?? ? ?'????, '? ????+?' ????? ???? ?+??', ???+??? ???? ??' ???? (????? ? ?????) ??+?'' ???'?? ?'? ???'???? '??? ? '?+?????? ?'', ??'??? ????'?' ?????''? ?' ', ?? ????? ??, '? ?????'?'??? ?' '?????' ???+'?', ?????' ? ?'???'? ???'??': ???'??? '? ': ??+:???? ?'? ?' 9. (': ??+:???? ?'? ?' '??'?'?? ?? ': ?'? ? ? ???? ??????? ??'.)

???'?? ??' +'' ???'?? ? ??????; ?? ??? +'' ?'? ???'????'??? '???, ? ????%? ??''?? ? ? '?, ???? ?????? ????'? ??????. ??, ?? ???? '??? ?? ????, ?? ?'' ?????'?, '? ????+??? '??? +??' ????''???, ?' ?? ????'?? ???? ?????+ '??????????? ???'??? ?'?'?????? ?'? ? '????, +'????? ??'???? ?'???'?? ????'? ?''??% ?': ???'??? ?'??'??. (??'?, ?? ?' ????, ? ????'???? ??'?' '??? ????'? ??'?'?? ?'? ??? ?:?????.)

-' ?????? ???'??' ???: ?'??. ??? ????, ?'??? ?+'?????? ?'? ??'?' +'' +''? ?????'?' ?? ?'?????; ?'? +'' ??'????? ?. -??? ???'?? ???'?? ? ???'??????? ? ?'???'???? '???? ??? ?????? ('??'????? ????', 1935), ??'??? ?? ?'??'?? ? ????? ? ??'???? ???'????? ?' '?????????10. -'?' ??'????? ?' ?? '????? ????'?'?' ?'? ???'?? ?+?'???? ?'??. '''? ??? ??'??? ? ???'?'?' ?????-'+? +?'????? ?'??,?'??' ?? ? '?????'???? ????'?' ( 1970),?''?'??? '?? ?? ?????''??? ??'?? ?'? ???'?'. ??'???? ???? ?'? ????' +''? ????' ?? ?'????? ??'? ??'? ?????+?; ??? ??? '?? '? ???'? :, '?+' ?'? ?+???'? ???:???%?? ?????? ?'? ???'?. ?:???'? ?+???, ??'?' ??, ?????+ ??? ??'????: ???', ??'??' ????'??', ?? ?'???' ?'??? ??': ?'???? ????' +''? ????'?? ???'??'? ?+??? ?????' ???? ? ??????, ??' ? ?'??? +?' ?+%: ?'????, ? ??? ????? ?' ? ????'?? ???'??' ???'???, ??'? +''? ?'??? '????'???? ???'??: ???'. % ???? ???? ???'?? ???'? ???-????? ???'??'? ? '??, '? '?' ? ?''?' ??+:?????' '??? ???'???-

54 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??? ???? ??'??????? ?' ? ??'?+???'?? ???'?.

?'??'?? ?'??? ???'?? ???'???????? ???:?? ??'??? '?, '? ?'??? ???'?? ?'? ''????' ??'?????? ?'?' ???'?''??? ????'?? ??? ?'???'? '?+???, ?'? ????''?'?? ? ?+'?': ?'????: ????'?. ?? ? '?  ??? ???? ?? ???? ?+??? ? ??????' ? ??????'? ?'????? '?'?????? '???', ??'??%? ?????', ????'?'', ???+? ???'??'. '????, ? ?????, ????? ?'???? ?'? '????' ??'?????? ?'?, ???'??'? ???'?? ? ?? ?+?' '???''?? ? ?+'????? ??'????? ?'?' (1973). ' ?? ?' ???? '?: ??'?': ????'??: ?????, ?? ?+???'' ? ?+%? ??%?'?''??'? ?+???'' ? ??:???'? ?'??'?, ?? ???' ? '? ? ??? ?:???' '? ??+'?' ?'? ????'? ?'???, ?? '?'??'??' ?+???'', '?+??% ???' ?+? ???'??', ? ??'??'? ?'????'??, ? ?????, '?''?, '?' '?'???'?, '?', '???'???% ???'?? ???', ? ??'??'? ?'???'??, ? ?????, ?'?? '??+:????'. '?' ???? ?????, ???'???'? ? ?+?' '???'???? ?? '???'??'? ?'?', +'' ????'??? ?'?; '? ?+???' '?''?, '?' ????'' ? '??  ???? ?'??? ', ?' ?????'? '??, '?' '?'  ??'? ????', '? '??+:????' (???? ?'??? ? ??'? ???'?? ?????'?? ????).

-'? ??? ?'???'?? ???? ? ?''??, ????? ??? ?'?' ''??'?? ???'???': ???'?? ??????. '? ???' ???' '?'??' ?'?' ???'?' ?? ????; '?+' ????'??? ? ??, ?? ??:??'??? ??????'? ?'? ??-???????. ?' +' ?'?-?+??? ?????' ???'??, ??? ?+?????? ?? ??' ?'? ???? ?'?????, ?? ?'?'' +' ?'???? ? ?? ????'?. ?? ??' +', '? +'????? ? ????? ??'????? ?' ???'???, ????'??%? ?'? ?'??? ???'??? '??? ???'???? ?'???'?, ??'??? ??'?' +' ?'??? ??? ????'?': ?'??'??. ?? ???? ?' ? ?? ??-'? ?????'?' '??????, +??? '? ???'?'??' ??? ?'???? ???+'?' ? '???'? ?'???? ??' '??? ??' (?? ??? ??' +''? ?????????? ?'???? ??'???'??'? ???????) ' ???+'?, ?????'? ??' ? ?'???? '???, ???? ???'??? ''???'?? ?????'??' ''???'?? ??? ??????' ??????' ? ?'??' '??????'? ??????? ??????'??'. ?? ??', ? ???'?? ???? ???'? ? ???????? ??'?? ??'???? ????+?': '????'???'.

?? ?'??' ???%?'?'?'? ??:?? ?' ??'??? ? ???'?? ??'? '?'?+???', ?'?' ???'??, ?'????, ?'??'??': ?? ??'?????? ?' ??'?????? ?'?, ? '?' ?'???, ??%:?? ? ?'????'???? '???, '.. '???, ??'??? ??????' ??''? ? ????'?, ?'??'??? ???'????'. ?? '??? ?'?+?? ??'??? ?'??? ????'???? ?'??? '??? ??????'?? ? ?'??? ????'????? '? ? ?'??-

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 55

??'???? '???. (??'? ?'? ? ????-??????? ?'????; ??'??? ?'??? ???? ??'??'?? ???'?? ???????'?, '? '? ??, ??????, ???'?? ??'?'?, '? : ??????? ??'?'?? '+? ... '+? ...) ?????, ?'????? ?'???'??? ???'???'??????, ???, ?'??'??? ''? '?? ???'?'' ? ?'??'?? ?? '''? ????? :, ?' ?'? '???, '? ???'?', '? ?????'? ??'??? ?'??? ? '?????? '????. ??, ?? ?'???' ???'??, ??-???':, '??? ????? +'' ?'???'??'?, ?? ? ??????'?? ???'??? ?'???? ???'?, , ??-?'??':, '????? '???, ? ??'???? ?????'?? ??'??? ?'??? ? :?? ?'???'????? ???'???'??????? ? ?'?????? '???, +'' ?'???? ???????, '?+' ?'?'? '?? ??'%?? ?'?? ???'?? ??': ?'??? ?' '?+', ????%??? ? +?' ????? ?????, ????''? ?''? ?'??? '???'? ''???'' '??''?'? ''???''.

? ???'?? +?'??? ??''? ????' ? '?'??? ???'? '?????': ????' ???? '??? '???, ??'???? ?' +?' ?????+?? ?????'?? ?, ?? ?????? '??? ??'?? ????? ???+'? ???' ????'???? '???, ??+?'??'? ?.'?-?'''??. ?'????? '??? ? '?'??? ?'??'?? ????' ?? ???'??? ? ???'??? ?+ ????: ????'?: ??????, ?? ? ???'???' ?????? ????, ???? ?????????? ??'??%??, ??, ????? ? ???'?? '????' ???'?', ?? ? ????'?? ?????? ??'????? ???? ? ??'??%? ????'. ?????, ????'?, ?'????' ?'???', ???% ?' ?????': ?'?, ??, ?????, '??' ????, ???'??? ?? +??' ??? ??'', ?? ?'? ?'???? ?'??? ??%?'??? '?' '?', '? ???? ?' ???. '?? ???+????'? '?: ???'???, ?? '??' ????' (?' ? ???+???'?'? : ? ?'' ????, ?????? ? ???'??? ???? ''??? ?' ? 11.20 ??? 13 ??+?? 1984 ?.'), ???'?' ? '??, '? ?? ????' +''? ?'??'? ?? ???: ?+?'??''??'?: ??'??'? ?? ????:. ?????, '? '?  ??? ???? ??'? ? '?: ?'???:, ?? '?? ?????'?'?'. -'? ??' +''? ?'??'?, ???? ?????'?? ? '???, ??'??'?, ???? ?????'?? ? ??'.

???? ?'? ????? ??' ?' ??? '??'?'???', '???'???' '????'???', ???'???? ??'? +'' ?'? ?'? ? ?????'?'? ???'?+'?? ???? ?'?'??'? '????. ?? '? ''???'', ?? ????, ?'??' , ?? ????? ?????, ? ??? ??:?'??. ???'??  ?????'???'?? ???'??? '?-?''', ???'??? ??'????? ????'?? ???? ??+''?'? '???'??'? ??'?'??? ?+???, ?' ????'??? ?????'??? '???, '? ??? ?'?' '????'??'? ?'????', ??' ?' '????'???? ?????'?'? ??%???'??', '? ?'? ?' ????'??? ?????'??? '?: ?'??, ?? '??', '', '?'?' ?. ' ?+?' '????'? ?'????'??? '???' (1970) ???'?? ????'?' ???????? ????'??, ??'??? '? ????-'? ??'?'' ??'?'?? ??'?? ?'????'???? '???. ??'??, '?'??? '? ????-'? ??'?''. ' ?'????'???? '???,

56 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??'??%? ? ?+? '? ???'??' ???'??', ?? '??+:????', ?'????'? '??'?'?? ?? ?'????'? ? ???'???? ??????? ?? (?? ?'?? ???'?''??'? ?? ?''?? ???? ?????':) ' ? ????'??: '?: ??:; ? ????'????  '??? ?'????'? ?' ?'? ?'????'? ?? ?????'?': ??'???: ???'?+'??. (????? ? ?+?: ?'??: ?'????'? ??' ?' ????'???? ?'???' ????'?????? ???'???.) ?+%? ?'? '?? ?????? '??? ??'?'?? '?, '? ?'????'? ??'? +''? '????????': ?'? ?'????'? ?? ????'???? ?'???', ? ?????'??? ?? ?' ? ??????, ?'? ?'????'? ? ?????'?? ???? ? ?????'??? ??'.

?'?, '??? ???'?? ???:??' ? '????'???? ?'?, ? ??'??'? ???? ????' ???'??? ??????????? ?'?,.?? '?'??? ??'????? ?'?? ??'???'? : ????'??? ???'????'?, ??? ????' '?? ?+???, '?+' ?'' ????'? : ??'??? ?'????' +'' ????' ?????'?' ?'???' ??%?' ??????'?'. (??'? ?? '??'??? : ?????'???' ? ???? ?????' ? ??? ?'???.) ? ??????, '? ?'?' ?'????? ?'?? ?'????'???? '???, ???'?? ?'?' ? ?''? '? ????? ????'??': ''???'??: ??%???'?' (? ??'???? ?? ????' ??'?' ? ???? ??:??, ???' '??'??' '' ????'?', ? ?'????'???? '???), '? ? '?? ????'? ???? '?+?????'?' ?'? ' '???, '?':???%?? ???' '?? ????'?, ''? ??'??? ??+?'??? ?????? ??' ''???' ? ???: ?'?? '??'. ' '?????'???? ????'?' (1970), ????' ????'?'???? ? 1969 ?., '.. ?? ??? ????'? ???' ?':?? '?'???'??: ??%???'?', ???'?? ?' '?+??????' ?? ?'????'???? '???, '? '????'? ??'?????? ?'? ? ?'?? +?' ?????? ???'??'. ????? ?,?'?? ?'???? '??? ????'? ??'?'?? '?:?????'.

?? ?? ??????? ?+?'' ???'?? ?'???'?? ?? ?? +?'?? +?'?? ?????'? ?' ?????'?, '? ??'?, ? '?? ??? ?'?????? '???, :?'? ? ?'?? ?'?' ? ??? ?'? +'?' ?????'????. ??, ? '???????, ? ?'?????? '??? ??????'?? '?? ?' ??? '?? ???'???, ?? '??' ' '???'??'', ?+'?'? ??'?''??'?, '??? ?? ???'?? ?'???', '? ', ????, ????? ? ????'??'? ?'?'? ('the'), ?'??' ?''? ???'??'? ?'?? ???': ?'?????'??. -'? ??', '? ?? ?'?' +' ? ? ???'???? ? '??? ?'?, ? '???????? ????'????? ???:???, ???'??? ??'????? '?? '??' ??'?'?? ???'? ?'?????'??, ?'?%? ???'%? ?'? '?: ????':, ?? '???'?''. ? +?' ?'?+???? ???'??'?????? ????? ?+'?', ?? ?' ?'?, ???' ??, ????? ? ?? ???''???' ?+% ??, ??'??'??, ?? ???'?'?'???%? ?????, ?'????, ?+???%? ????'? ?????'? ???': ????'?. ?? ???? ???'??, ?' ?????'?

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 57

??%?'???', ?' ?? ??:??'?? ???????, + ???'???'? ??'?, ???'?'? ??'??' ?'?, ??'??' ?????? '????'???' '? '????'', ?? ??', ? ?????? ? ? +?' ??'?': ???'??: '??????:. ?'?-'? ??'', '? ?'? ?'? ?'???? ?'???? ?, ?? ??'? ? ??' ?????'??? ? ????'?????? ??'?????' ???'?? '???'???'? ???''??'??? '??, ??? ??? ????''.

??'? ? ???? ???'???? ?' ???'?? ??'??? ???'??' '?????' ??'', ?'?? ? ???? ?' ? ?? ??? ? ??' ??????, ?' ?'' ' ?? : ????'? ':???? ????? '  ????' ? ??? ? ?? ???'??' ??'?'???? ?+?''??'?. ? : ????%?? ?? ?+?????', ? ?????, ?'???%: ?' ?'????, '? ???'' ?'?? ''??'?' '???'???', ???' ? '? ?' ??, '? ?'? ??' +''? ????-'? ???'??. ?' ????'???? '???'?? ??'?'?? ?'????, ?'? ??? '????? ????'?. ?+? ?'?????? '???'? ?'???'? +', '? ?? ?????'? ???'' ?'?? ''??'?' ??'??'?? ?+%?. ?????'??? ?' ???, '? ?'''? +' ???'' ?' ?'?? ''??'?', '? ???'? ?'?'???? ?????'?, ?? ?'?-'? ??? +' ? ?'? ' ? ?'?'?, '? ???'' ?' ?'? ?'?? ''??'?'? ? ??  ?'?-'? ? ?' ?'???. ?'?' ???'?? '???: :?'? ? ??? ???'?''???? ?? ???'' ?'?? ''??'?' ???'?''??? '???'???', ???? + '??? ?????'? ?????'? ??, ? ??'???? ?? ? '???'???' ? ??'????, ???, ??? -????', ???' ''??'?', ???'' '?? ?'??'?' ?+? ?'??. ????'?, ?'???? '???'?? ?' ?'? '???'?? ?? ??: ?????': ??:; ?' ??'? ??'? +??????'? ????, '? ? ??%?'??' ???????? ??, ? ??'???? ???'' ? +'' +' ???''??. ?''? +''?, ?'?-'? ??' ?????'??? ? '??, ??'?'?? ' (? ???'???? ??) ???'' ?'???? ''??'?', :?'? ?? ? ??' ?????'??? ? '??, ??'?'?? ' ???'' ???''??. ?'?' ' ? ???'?? ???'??'? ? ?' ?+?''??'?? ?''?, '? ? ????-'? ??'?' ?????' ??' '???'?''??? ??%?'???'', ? ?' ?? ????? '??? ?'??? ? ??'??', '  ?? ??-'? +'' ??'? ??'? ? ?: ''?? ?+???' ?', ????+?'? '? '' ????' ?? '??' ? ??': '?', ?' ?'?' ??????, ?? ?'???'???, ??? ?????'?.

'??? '??? ? ???:%?? ?'???'?? ? ???'?? ?????'' ?? ???' ???? ?'????? ?+?'?? ????'?? ???? '???'?'?'?? ?'??'???' (1973). '??:%? +''? ???'?. '??? ??' ??'? ?'?? ? ???'?? ?????, ?? ?' ? ??', ? ??'?? ????. '?????'? ??? ''???'? ?' ? ????? ?'? ?''??? +?' ?'??? ???'?? +'' ?'??? ????? ????'????? ?? +?' ??'??'? '???? ?' ???'?'?' ?''''???? ?'? ????????? ''???'. ?????, '? ??'?? '???, '? ?? ?''??? ??? ???????? ????. ?? ??'?'?? ?+?' ?'???? %'???? '?? '?? ???, '? ??????? ? '?????': ??:' ?'?? ???' ? ????'??? ?+???'? ?, ????????) ?'? '???, '?+' +''? '? ???'???'? ':???? ???'??? ???

58 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

????? +''? +' ????'??? ??'? ? '??? ????'? ????? ?''??: ??%, ?? ?'?' ?? ??'?. ?? ??' ?? ??????? ????? ''???'??: '?. ' ?'???', ?? ??? ???? ??'? ? ?????'?%???? ??????? ? ???'???? ???:?? ? ???'?. ' ????? ??'? ? ?'?? ?????? ?? ??+?'' '??? '??????', ??'??? ???'?' ? ?+ ????? ???? ?? ???'?, '? ???'? ''???'.

'?? ???? ?'? ?????'?? ? ?? ??? ?? ?''?, ??'???? ?? ???' ?'? ?+????, ?????%????? ????????, ??'??? ??'?'? '?'?, ?'? ????'?' (1974). ?????, ???? ????': ? '? ?? ? '??' ? +?' ??'??? ?? ? ?+?': '??????' (1969) '?+%? ???'?' (Synthese, 1970). ????? ? ?'?? +?' ????? ?''? ?? ? '?'??? ????'??? ???', ?? ???''????' '?? ?+???, '? ?'? ????' ?? ???''?'? ?? ?+???? ???'?. ?+? ?' ?''?? ?? ????: ?'?????: ????'?'?' ??+?? '?'??? ??'' ?' ?? ??', ?? '?' ? '??? '???.

??%?'??', ?? ?'?' ??????, ?? ???:?? ? ?'??. ???'??? ?????? ???:???, ?? ?? ????'?'? ? '?+%? ???'?' '???, ?'? ?????' ??? ???'???''????'?? ???? ?????, ??? ??'' ?????? ? '??, ? ? ???'?' '?? ??????. ??? ??'?? +''? '???'?, '?+' ?? ?' ???': ? ???'?''???? ' ??????? ?? ?' ???' +' ???'? ?+ ?'????' ' '????' ???'???. (??, ?? ??%??? ?'??? ? ???'?''???? ?? ?' ??? ??'? ?'??'? ???'?? '?'?????' ?'??' ??', ?? ??%??? ?'??? ? ???'???? ??????? ?? ?' ??? ??'? '??'? ???'?? '??? ?? ??? ?'?', ?? ???'???' +' ?+? '??'.) ???'??? ???'?'??? ???'?? ?' ?? +'????? '???, '? ??? ????' ?'????? ? ???'???? ??, ??'??' ?' ????+??'? ???? '??? ?????+'?' ??????' ???'?' ?'?????? ?' ????'??' ?? ???'? ? ?? ?'????' ' '????' ? ???'?'?'???%? ?'?, '.. ??'?'?? ' ??? ?'??'? ' '??'? ? ???'???? ?????'??? ??, ' ?'??'? ?? ??: ?????': ??: (?''?? ?'??'?), ' '??'? ?? ??: ?????': ??:.

?? ?' ??? '?, ?'??''? ???' '???, '??'??'? ?'? ? ???-??????? ???, ????'???, ?? ?? ???'???' '?' ???'????? ?????'???? ???+%?'? ? '?: ???? ?+???, ???? ???'? ???: ??''? ?? ?????? ???+%?'??. ????? ? ?'?? ???'??' '??? ?'?'?' '? '??? ???, '? ???'???'? ????-'? ?????'?'? ?'? ?' ?????'??? ???????. ???? ???' ? ?'?, '? ?'? ??'???'?? '?+?? '??? ????? ? ??+:???? ?'? ?'?. ?'?, ?? ?? ????, ???'?' ???' ?????'?. ? '??.

??'??, '??? ???? ? ?'?', '? ?????'? ? ????-'? ?'? ?' ?' ???'???? ??' ?+? ????'??'? ?+???, ???'???? ???'???'? ????'???? ????'??, ????'??'? ?'????'? ?? '.?. ?

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 59

?'???' ?? '???, '? ??? ? '?: ???'??: ????'?? ? ???'???? ??+??, ?? ?? ?'??'?'? ?'? ?? ??:???' ? ?'????, '? ??'?:? +''? +' ?'? ?'? ? '???-'? ????'??? '??-'? ?'????'? ????. '???? ??'??'??, ?'?'???%: ???? ??????????? ?'?, ???' +' ???'??'? ???? '?, ?? '?'??? ??'???, '? ? ?: ? ?'? ?'?, ? ??'??': ?? ????' ?+%'??? ???? ? ??????. ?????, ?? ???'?, ? ??'??'??'?? ? ??+???:.

?' ?????? ????'?'?' ??+?? ???'?????'?, '?, ?'???' '???, ???'?????'? ???+??? ???. '?????, ?' ??' ??, ?' ?'? ???'?????' ? ????? ' ? ????? ???, ??'??' ??'??'?? ?????'??'?, ?? ???'??'?? ??'??'? '???, '? ?'?' ???'????? ?+%?? ?'???'. ?' ?? ??'??'?? ??????, ? ???''??'? ???'??'? ?????, '? '?'??? +'????? '???, '? ????'?? ??? ??%?'?????: ???'?????'?, ?? ?'?? ??? ? ?? ???+???'??; +??? ???'?????'? ???, +''? +' ?'?'?  ????? ???+???'?'??? ? ??.

????+?? ????? ????? ???????'? ??'???''?? ???'?, '??? ?'? %'' ???? ?? ??+?' ? ''?? ??'. ???'?+'? ?'? ?? ?????+'?' ????? ': ??, ? ??'??': ????, '?+' ???'? ??+??, ??'?' ???'???'?'? ??? ??'?. (????'? 'Ouida' ??-'?, ???'?? ??+?' ???? ??? ????????, ?'', '? '?? ??+' +'?'??, ?? ? ???? ??:??'. ?? ? ????', '? ???'? ??+?? ? '?: ????: ???? '?'??? ? ??'?'', ?? ?????' ''???'??, '??''?': ???'?????'.) ? ???'???? ???+%?'? ???? ??'?, '? ??? ????'? ?????? ??'??? ?? ??? '??? ?'????', ?' ?' ??? ?' ??%?'???? ????%? '??? ?' ??' ?? ??'?? '??? ?'????', ??, '? ?'? ??????, ???, '? ?? ??''??' '? ?'? ??' ?'???' ??'???'????? ???????, ?? ?? ?????' +' ??'??? ????? ?'????', ?' +' ?+???', '? ??' ?? ??''??' '? ?'?', ?' ???? ???'??? ???'? ??'??? ?? ??? '??? ?'????' ??'?'?? '????'? ??????'. (' ?'', ???, ?' ???%?? ???, ??'???? ???'??' '?? ?????' +' ???%'?, ? ?' ???? ?'??? ? ?'?'.)

?' ??, ???? '?? ??????'?? ???'? ???????? ????, ??'??', +??'????, ???' +' ????'?'? ?????'???? ???'???, ?? ??  ??'??'?? ??????, ? ????'? ???'?????'??, ? ?' ?? ?'?'?? ? ??'?'' '????????' ???'?. '''?? ?'? ?? '???, '?+' +'? ?'?'??????. ???? '?  ?' ????? ????? ?'???''??? ?'?, ?????'??? '?'??'??? ?'??? +??' ??, ? ??'???? ?' ? ???' +' +?'?? '??:???'? ??? ?????+???'? ? ??'??? ?? ???'??'???'? ? ????%?? ???? ????? ???? ???'??? ????: '??? ??'???'??? ????%?'??'. ????? ?????+???'? ???'???'? '?? ?+??? ????-'? ?????'?'? ?'?, ?'???' '???, ??' '? ?' ????'? ???''?? ?'??? ?'? ????? ? '???????' ????'. ?' ??? ?' ???: ??''? ?? ?'?????? ???+%?'??,

60 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'? ?? ??????' ?? +?'??? ?' ????? ???' ? '?, '? ?' '? ?'?. ??'??? +'????? ?'?? ????? ?? ?'? ????'?' ?? ???'???'?'? ?? ??'?. ?' +' '?? ???'???? '?' ?' ?????, ? ?'?'? ???'????, '?+' ???? +''? ?'??'? ?'? ???'????'??? '???, '? ?? ??????', ?' ?' ?? ??' '??? , ?'? ? ?' +' ??'?' 12.

''? '???, '?? ?+???, ??'?? '??? ?'? ??'? ?'? ?'?'' ?? ? ??????', ???'?'??' ???'??, '? ? ??????', ???'?'??' '?????, ', ?? ????? ??, ? ?' ??????' ?? : ???'???? '????'????. ? ?? +''? ? ???????, ???'?'??'? ??????? '??? ? ??'?' ????: ???+'? ?'???? ????????. ????? ?? ???'?' ?+????? '?????'???? ????'?', ??'??? +??' ????'? ? ??'? ?'?': ?'?? ?? ???', ??'??'??' '???? ? ?'???? ??': ? ?????'???': ?'???, '? '???'??????' ????'? ???????? ? ? '?? ??, ?? ?? +'' ?'????'????' ? 1965-1966 ??. ???'???, ?????, '? ?? ? ????''????', ???? ?? :??' ?+ ?'???'?:, '?, '? ??, ?? ?' ? ?'?', ?'?' '???????' ?. -'? ??' ? ????? '??, ???' '???, ??'??? '??'?'?' + ????? '? ?'?'??' ???'?? ????'?, ?? ?'? ?'???'. ''? ?????'?? ?'??? ????''? ?? ??'?' ???'?? ?' :?'? ???'??? ??'?' ? ??'? ?'??? ?????? ???:?? '???? ??'???%???? ?? +?' ????'?%? ?'??? ?'?'''?, ?? ????, ?' ??+?''? '??? ?'???', ??'??? ? '?'??? ? '??????? ???''??????? ??? '????'?' ?'????'?' ??? ?'? ???'???', ?? ?'' ?'? '?? ??: ?????': ??:, ? '?'??? ? '?? ??, ??'????? ?'?'??? +''? ???'?''??'?'. (' ?'? ???'??': ???'???? ????'? ??'?? ????'? ??''?? ? '????'? ????'? ?????': ????'.) ?? ???'??' ????: ?? '?????, ?' '?????' ??'' ?'??' ????'? +???'???.

? ? ?'?', ?? ?'?? ??? ????'?? ??? ''???'? ? :?? : ??'?? ???? ? ??????. ???'???, ????'??? ???'?? ?????': ???? ???+??? '? ?+'?'?, ?? ?? ?+?' ????? (??'?? ? ??? ??'???' ?'??'???), ? ???''??? ???'? ???? ?? ?'? ??????? ??? ?+?' ?'?'? ?? ??'???, ???? '?????, ?'?????? '?????? ?+?'?? ?'?'??????. '? '??, ????+?? ????? ????? ''???'?, ????'???'? ? ?'?? ?'?, ??'??'?? ?????. -???? ???? ?'??? ???? ? ?????'??? ': ?''??: ?'??'??, ??'??' ?'???' ???'? '?????': ????' % ??? ?????'??' ???-?, ????? ?'?'? +?'???? ??'? ? ??????. ' ??'?'' ???'???''??? '?? ??'???? '??? ??'?? ???'?? ??????'?. ????? ? ?????, '? ????'? ? ???'???%?, ???? ? +??? ??+?'? ? ????+??? '?'?, ?' ????'' ????'?? ???'?? +?' '?? ?+????'?.

'?' ?'??' ?????'?: ? ?? ??? ?'?' ?????? ? ?????': ??:? ???? +' ? ??+?''? '???, ????%?? ??''? '?'??? ? ??

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 61

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aqua regia *, ?? ??? ?+?'??? ??'?'?? ?'?' ???'?' '?? ????+.) ?? ??????' ? ????'???'?:, ??'??' ??? ''???'' ?'? ????'??' ' ? '???: '??'?????'?', ' ? '???: ???? '???, ? '? ?'?-'? +'' +' ??'?? ?'?'? ??. ?''? +''?, ?'?? ? ?+' ???'?'??': ?'?????, ??'??', ? ???'? ??'??, ??????' ? ???????'?:, ? ? ???'?''???? ??'?? ?', ??'??' ?', '? ? ??, ?'? ?'??'?.

'??' ? '? ?' ????''? ? ':, ?'? ??'?? ?'???'?, '? ???'??? ? ???????'?: ???? ??'????'???'? ?? ?'????? ? ???'?''???? ??'?? ?'. ?'???? '???? ?'' '????'?'? + ?+??????' ?? '?????+???' ' ???????'?????', ???'?'?'?? ?'??'???, ?????', ? ???'?''??' ??%???' ' ???'???' ?????'. ? '?+??? ? '?+?????' ?????'?' ??''?? ? ???'?''???: ''? ?????' ??' ?'??' ? ???'?''???? ??' 13. ?? ??'? ?+?????'? ?'? ??? ? ?+?' '??', ?'?'?' ??????' (1954) +'' ?????''?, ?? ?'?? ??' ?+ ?'??. ' '??, ???' ??'????? ?+?? ????'? '?'??'?, ?? ??'?'?? ? ????' '??'???'??'. ?? ?? ???? ?'????'???'? '?: ???? ?-??????'??? ?????'??, ??? '?????''?', '???'? ?????'???', ????' '?+??' +??? ?''? '???'???'??' ?'??? ?????'? ? ?'?, ???? ?'? ? ??'?'?? ? ???'?''????' '?????''?', ?? ?'???'?? '???'? ?? ???'?'?'???%: ?+?'??''??'?:; ?', ?' ???'???'?? ??????? ? '?? ?'?, ???? ?????'?? '?????''?' ????? ???? ? ????? '???'? ?????'??', ??'??'? '? ?+'??' ????'', ???'??' ?? ?? '?+?', ?????, : ???'?' ???, ??'??'??%?, '? ?% ???'?? '?'??? '???, ???? ??' ?'???'??? '? :. ?:???'? ?+??? ???'?'?'??? ??'???? ?'??'?? ??'?'?? '???'???'??' ???? ??? ????????+?': ????. ?''? +''? (?????'????? ??? ?+?' ?+?''??'? ??????), ?'??'?? '?' +' ?

* ???? ???? (''.). ?' ???. ??.

62 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??'?' ?'? ?'?'? ??'?? ? aqua regia, '? ??? +' ??'???'???' ????'?'?' ??+?? '???'???'??' ???? ??? '???, '? ???? ?'?'? ???%?' ? aqua regia, ??? ???'?''??? ??'????'??.

-'?' ?' ?' '???? ???', '? ?'? ???'?'?'?? ?'??'???, ? ??'??'? ??, ????, ??????, ?' ?????' ??? ??'??? ???+'??. ????, '? ? ????? ?+?+%? ?'?' ???'????? ?????-'+? ???'?'?'????? ?'??'???. ?+?+%? '???' ???? ????' ?'? ? ??? ????? ????'??'?'??' ? ???'???' ???'?'?'??? ?'??'?? '?' +' ?'?'?? ????? ????, '? ?'? ? ?????? ?' ????'???'?? +''. ' ?  ???'?' ?'? '???? ? ??' ?????'???'??? ?'?'??, ??'??'? ?' ?', ???? '? ????????+?? ?'??'?? ?'''?? ?' ????: ?+?+%?? '?, '? ?????'?' ???'?'?'?? ?'??'???.- ??-'? ?? ? ?'???', ???? ??? ?'??'??? ???'????' ???'?'?'?? ?'??'???, ???? ?'. ???'??? ?? ?+?? ??'?'?? ??? ???'???'?? '???+'??? ????'.

?'?'??????? ? ?'?? ???+'???, '???? ???'?' ????, ??'??'? ?????' ? +?'?? ???????, ? ???? '''??. '????'?, '? ?? ?????', ?+'???' ?? ????' ???? ?, ??'??'?? '?'?. -'? ?+'?? ?''?? ???'????? '?? ???'', '? ?? ?????' ??'??'?? '?'?, ?' ??? ?' ??'? ???'???'?? ? ??+'???' ?'?. ????? ?????'?? +?' ?'??'? ????' ''?+??'. ?? ?????'?? ?? ??? '?'? ?%?, ?' ?' ??' : ?? ???? i, a ? ???'???? ?'? ?' ?? ??? ??'?+'? ?%?. ???'??? ? ????' ???? t ?' ????? ? ??'? ?'??'???, ?'????%?, '? ????-'? ????? ??'?'?? '?'?, ????'?? ??'''??'? ?? ?'??'??? ? '??, '? ?'?' ????? ??'?'?? '?+'?, ??? ?': ?'??'??? ???'???' '? ???'?, '? ?? ?????' ??'??'?? '?+'?. ????? ???' ???? t ????-'? ????? ??? +' +''? '?+'?, ?' +' ?? +'' ??'?+'?, ?? ?'? ? '?. ????  ? ????? ??????': ???'????%: ???': ?' ??? ???%?'?'?'? ???'???'?? '????, ?? ? '?+????

'???? ?'', '? ?? ??' ?'?''? ? ?'?' ??????. '????? ?+?+%???, ?'??? ''?'?' '?? '?????'???', ?' ?'??? ''?+??', ? '?? ??'?', '? ? ????'?? ?? '???'???'?' ?'? +'?' ?????'?. ?? ?' ? +??? ??'?+'?'??? ? '?, ?? '???? ?'?''??? %%' ?'? ???? ??? ?' ?+?' ????': ?????, ????? ?' '??? ?????, '? ?? ????? ??????'??. ?+? ? '?? ???? ?????+???'?? ??'??'? ???? ? ???+'? '???? ??+'?? '?? '???, '? ?'+' ? ????: ?:?'? ?'???'? ?? ??'?.

?????, ???'?'?? ?' ?????+' ?+??????? '?? '?? ???, '? ???'?'?'?? ?'??'???, ??????'??' '???' '??? ????+?? ? ?+?'??' ?? ????'? '?????' ??''. ???'?'????

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 63

''???' '?? ????, ?????, ?'???', '? ??'???' ?'??'??? ? ??'??'??, ?'???? ??????, ?'??'? ' '??'?. ?? ?'????' ???-????' '?'??? '? ?+'?' ???'??' ????'???? '?????', ?'? +''? ??'? ?? ???? ? ? '??, '? ??'???? ?'??'?? ?' ?'? ????%??? ??????, ? ?'????14. '??? ???????? ? ?+?' ?? ?' ???''? ?'?'???'? '?+? ??'???? ?'??'?? ?? ??????% ? ???'?''????. ?? ????'?'?'??? ????'?, '? ???''?? ?'??'??? ????'????? ?'??, ???? ', ?? ???'??, ???%?? ? '?'' (????? '?' +' ? +'' ?''?????', ???? ??? ??????'?? '???? ????????), ? ???'?'?'??' ???'?''????', ????' ?'???'??? '?'??? ? ??+''?? ? ?????': ??:. (''? '??? ??, ?+'?? ????'? ?? ???'?''??'?, ?' ?'? '?? ??, ? ??'???? ?' ?? ?? ??'??'?, ?'???''???, ?????? ?'??? R?, ?' '?'? ???'? ?''? ?'????'??'.) '?+' ????'? ???:?? '???, ?' ????? ? ???? ?'?'??? ?' ??? ?+?'??? ? '??? ??'???': ?'??'???' (1968) ?+?' ?'?'????.

?'?'???? ??' ? ?????'??? ???'???': ??? ?+?'??''??'?, ?? ??'??': ?' ?? ??????? ????'? ???''??? ?'??'??. ????? ?' ???????? ? ????: ?? ???  ??:??' ?' '? ??? :??'??? ?'? ????????? ??'?-???????? ''???' ?' ? ?????'??? ??'??? ?'????' ?'? ???''??: ?'?????. ?', ???'??? ???'?????? ??? ???:???, '?+' ??'???'?, ????'? ?? ??'???? ?'??'?? ' ?', ?' ??'?' ??+?'? ?? ?'??' ? ? ??%??? ? ?? ??????????' ???? ?????'?'?, ??'?'?? ' ?? ?'?? ?'??'? ???????', '? ?'?'???? ????%' '? ??%???? ??????????'? ????' ??? ? '???'?''??'? ??', '? ??%???? ??????????'? ????' ???' ? ?'??'?? ?' ? '?????'? ??', '.. ? ??, ? ??'???? ?'??' ?'?? ' ??'??'? ? ????: ?'?????: ???'??? ?'''?? ?' ???'?''????? ??'. (???'?  :??'???, '? ?? ????''?' ?'? ??????? ?? '?? ???, '? ?'? ????'?' ?? ???????+'? ??? ??? ' ???'?? ???? ?'? ???'??': ?'??'???.) ???'??? '?' +' ? ???'???' ?? ???'?, ??? ?? +'' +' +?' ??''???' ?'???, ?' '?'??? ?' ??? ?? +'' +' ??''? ? ??, ? ??'???? ? ???'?''??? ???'???' ?? ???'?, ?? ??'??'? ? ????: ?'?????: ???'??? ?'''?? ?' ???'?''????? ??.

?????, ????'??? ?'???'?, '? ?'? ?'??'?? ?'??' ?''? ?'??'? ? '???, ????, ???'???? ??????? ???'?, ? +'' +' ??''?, ?? '?'??? ? '?? ?'?, ?' +' ?'??'?? ???? ?+?'??''??'? ?? ??? : ????+?. (?? ??'??, ?????, '? ? ??'?? +' ????, '? ? ? ??'??' +' ?+?'', ? ??'?'' +' ?'??? '.?.) ?????, ? ?????? ?'????', ?'?? ?'???'?, '? ?'? ?'??'?? ?'??? '?'??? ? ??, ??'??'? ? ? ? ? ?'''?? ?' ??%?'???%?? ?? ??'?-

64 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?? '???, '? ? ???'???' ??????? ???'? +'' ??''?. ?+?, '?+' ?'''??? ? ?'??, ????'? ?? ??'? +'' +' ?'''??? ? ????: ?'?????:. ?? ??'? ? ??' ? ?'? ???'??'??; ???'???'? ???-'+? ???'? ?' ?' ? ??''? '???, '? ? ? ???'?''????' ??'', '.?. ???'??? ?' ?'????' ???'? ?' ?? +' ?'? ? ??''? ?? '??????', ?' '? ???'? ?????'? ?? '???'???' ?'''?? ?' ???'?''????? ??. ?''??? ??'? ?:????? ???+'??, ??? ????', '? '????, ??????, ??'?+??'??? +' '?'?????'???'?' ? ??%???? ? ??? ??????????'? ????, '?+' ??'?'? ? ? ??+?'??'? ? ?'??'. ?+? ? ? ?: ??' ???'??? ???'???.

' ?'' ?' ?'?'????, '??? ? ???'?' ?+%?? '??? ??'???': ?'??'???. ?? ??'?'?' ???? ???? '???'?'?'?? ?'??'???' ??' ? ?'????? ? '??, '? :?'? ???'?'?'?? ?'??'??? ?'?'???' ?? ?'??? ??'???' ?'??'???, : ?'?? ?????+'?'? ?. ?? ? ?? ? ???: ?+%: ?': ?? '??? ??? ?????' '??? ?'?'????, :?'? ?? '?' ? ???'???: '???:, ????'?'?? ?????' ??' ? ?? ?'???': ???? ? ???? ?'?. ????? ?'?'???? ?''?' ? ??? ???? ? ???: ????':. '?-???':, ?'?'-???? ??????', '? ????-'? ?? ???? ?:??'???'? ?? ??'? +'??, ?? ?:???%??? ? ??'??? ??????? ???'??? ?' '?'??'????? ?? ??, ??? ?' ???'?''????? ??. '??? ?'? ?'?'. ''? ??, ????%?? ?'??? ?'??? ? ????, ? ??%?'??' ?????? +'???? ??. '?-?'??':, ???'??? '????, ?'?'???? ? ?' ????''???''????? ?+?????? '??? +?'????? ?'??? ???'?'?'??: ??'???': ?'??'???, ? ??'??': ???????' ????' ?'??? '??? +'', ? '+'' +'', ?????: '? ??? +' +''? ??''??, ?' +''.

?' ? +??? ????'??'? ???'???% ?+????, ?'???? ???''??? ?'?'???? ?'?''? ? ?' ????? 15. '???'??? ????? ? '????????? '?'?'????' ?'???' '?????': ????'. ?? ???'?, ?????'?'???, '? ??:?? ?'?'???? ?' ??????? ? ??-????: ??????????'?: ???? ? ??????? ? ?????': ??: ? ??' ???? ? ?''?; ? ?????? ?' '?' ?????? ?????' ? ????'?: ?'??'???. ???'??? ?''? ????, ???? '??? ???': '? ???????, '? ???? ?+??? ? ?'???'?'?? ?????' ??' ? ??'??'? '????'??? ??%???'??: ? ?'? : ????'??''??'? ??'??'? ??%???'??. ???? ? ??'?? ? ?'? ? ?'???? ?????': ????, ? :??, '?+' ??? ????' +???'???'.

?'?'????, ?'?-'? ???'. '????'?, ? ?'????, '?, ?' +' '??? +'' +??', ?? ?' +' ? ?'?? ???????. ? ???'? ??'??, ?'? ???'?? ?????' ? '???, ??%?'???%? ???, ? ??? ???'?''???? ??. ?? ??' '??? ?:??'??? '? ? ??????? ??? -??? ????' ???+'? ''?????????? ?'???'?'??', ??'???? ???+? ??? ?-

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 65

? ????' ????. ?'?' '??? ???'?' ? '??, '?, :?'? '??? ??' ??%?'???'? '?'??? ? ????? ??, ?? ?' '????????' ? ?????': ??:, ??'??' ???'??? ?''?'?? ?' ?? '???, , ?' ????'???? ??'???? ?'??'?? ?'???, '? ? ?+ ????? ?': ???????? ?'?? ??'?, '? ?? ??'?'?? +??''? ? ??' ????????? ? ?'??. -' ?????? ??' '???''??? +'??' ?:???'?? ? '????? ? '??': ???': ?' ?? ???? ???'???? ??'?? ????? ?'??????', : ?:???'?? ? ?? ??'?'?? '? ?? +'??, ? ?:???'?? ??? ????? ?%?, ??%?'???%? '?'. ????? ?'?' ??? '??? ? ???'???' ?? ?' ???'????'? de re, ???? ??????' ?' ??? ?????'??, ??'??'? ????' ??'? ?+'?'?, '?+' +''? '?, '? ?? ?'?, ?????'??, ??'??'? ?? ?+'?' ?'????. ?? ???? '???, ?????'?, ??'??'? '??? ??'? ?+'?'?, +???' ?'? ?? ?? ?????? ?' ? ?'' ?' ?????'?, ??'??' +???' ?'? '?'??? ??? ' ????'??? ????????. (??, '??? ??? +' +''? +??''?, ?? ? ??? +' +''? ????'?, ? ???'? ?? ?'?? +''? '?????.)16

??' ???? ??? ?'??? ? ????' 17. '???????, ?? ???'? ?'' ???'???'? '?????' ??'' ? ???'?, '? ????'? ?? ??'???'?. ?? ? ?? ? ????'?? ? ??? '?????? ??+:?????'?' (1980), ??'??? ??' +'' ???+'???? ?? +?'??? ?''??, ?? ??'???'?? ?'???' '????????? '?'?'????' ?'???'? '?????': ????'. ?? ?'? % ? ?? ?' ?? ?'+??'?' ? ?'?????, ?? ????????+'??, ???'?'??'? ?????? ?????? ? '????????? '???'?, ??'??'? ??+??' '??? ???'?'? ??? '???'. (???? ??????', ?? ?' ???? ?', ''???????? '???'??' ? ??? ??'?'.) ? ????''????' ?? ?'???? ? '?????'? ???' ?? ? ????'??? ':?????? ????.

????'??, ?????' ??, ?? ?+'?' ??'??' ???'. ????'??, '? ? ????-'? ????' ?' +???? : ??? ?: ??' ??'???? ???:, ????? ?' ??'????. ?' ??? ?:??'???'? ?'?' ???'?''??'? ??'?'' ?? ??? '?????':' ?? +???? ???'?. ??'? '??? ?????'? ???'? ?? ?? ? ???', ?? ???? ????, ???? ????'?'? ?? ??'???'? '?????'? ??'. ?????, ???? ??'?'' ?'?, ? ?? ?? ???? ??'???' +' '  ??' ???', ? : '??????'; ?''? +''?, ????? ???+'?' ''?????????? '???'?' ? ?'? ??'??': ???'? ? ??%?'??'.

-'?, ???' ????, ??+'??? ????'?? ????. ?? ???'?, ?'??'?? ???'?'?'?? ?????, ?' '??'?? ?''?? ? '?'??? ?? ??'??' ???', ?? '?, ??? +' ??? +''? ??? ?? ? '??, :?'? ? ?' ?' ?'?? ?+ +?' ?? ???, ????? ?? ???? '?? ??', ?? ???? ????, '?'??'. ????? ?'????'? ?': ?'?? ????? ? ??'? ??'?'? ?' ?? '?' '?' ?' ?'?'? ????'? ? ?'? ??'??': ???'?, ?' '? '?????' ??'' ????'?'??' ??+?? +?'??-

66 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'?' ???'???? ???'?''????? ??. ?? ??', ????????? ???'???' ?'??? (????? '??????, '?') ?'? ??? ???'??', '? ??' ? ???, ???? ??????' ? '?????': ??:'. (???? ????? ?'': ?????' ??' +'' ????' ?'? ?+?????? ???'????'; ????  '??? ?' ???? ????????, '?  ?? '??, ?' ?+?%??? ? ????: ?+?????? ? ???'??'? ?'??'????.)

???? ???? ??'? ''? '??? ?????' ??? ??+?? ?: ??-???':, ?????' ?' ??? ?????'? ??+:???'?; ??-?'??':, ??+?''? '??? ?? ??+?'???':; ?-'?'?:, ?'????'? ?????' ? ??'?? ??+:?????' de re, '.. ???'? ?' ????? '?? ??? ???-?, ?'???? ??+:?????'? ?'????%??? '?'??? ? ?'??????, ?' '? ?% ? ??+:?????'?? ?+'??' ???'??'? ???: ?????'?; , ?-'??'':, ?????????'? ????' ?'?????? '???'?. ?? ??%:?? ? ???? ?????+???'?: ? '???'????? ?'? ?' ???? ??'?, '? ?' ??????' +???' ?????'??' ? ?? ????? '????: ????'?. ?? ?'? ? '?: ??? '?????? ??+:?????'?' ????'?'?' ??+?? ????'??? '??, ???'??': ? ?'???'???? ???. (???''??? ?? ??+?''? ??????? '???, ?????' ?? ?? ? ???? ???, ?? ?????? ???'??' +' ????'???, ?? ?? ?? ?????'????.) ???????' ? ????? ?? ?'? ?????' - ?'?? ?? ?'???'???? ???', - '???, '? ?? ? :?' ???'?'? ?+? ?'???? '????'?????.

????  '?? ?'???'??? '??? ' ??? ???? +?' ?????, ??? ??'????, ?''? ???? ???'?' '?-'? ???? ?????? ???????, ????'???? ???'? ': ''???'??, ??'??', ?? ??? : ':????? ?+?'''????', ? ?????+?' '????'? ? ?? ??????' ????'?'??' ?'?'; ?? '????'???' ':??? ??'?, '?+' '?'??? ? ???'???'? ????'?' ? ''???'?? ???:??', ????, ??'?? ?????, '? ''?+?? ':???? ??'??, ??? +' ?????'??'? ? +''? ?? ?+??????, '?? ????'??? (!) ''???'????? ?????''. ?? ?+?' ''???'?? '??:???'? ??'?'? ???'? ? ?'???? ':, ?'? ?'''?? '??? ?????'??? ? '????'??? ?'? ??????? ??????? ? ????%?? ??????': ?????': '???'??': ???+???', '? ??'?' : ????'? ''?? ????'?'? ?? ? ???????'?:, '? ? ???: '???'??': ?'?'??: ?'????'. ?????, ?? ?'', '? ???? ???'??'? ???:???? ??'?'?? '?? ???'??'? ?'???, :?'? ?+?' '??' '???'??' ??????? ??+:???' '???, ???? ????'???'? ?????? ??'?'?? ?'???? '?????? ???+'???18.

?+?'??? '??? ? ???'??'? ''?? ???????. '???, ?????' ????, ?' '?-'? ??????, ???? ?? ??'?' ?'? ?? ????'? ?' ??'' ?????+??. ????'?, '??+:?????'?' ?' ?'? '????? ????': ?'???'?, '? ?'??'?? ??'?'?? ??+:???? ?'??'?, ?' ?'?''??? ?'?''? ? ??????: '???'? +' ?'? ?'??'?? +''?

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 67

'??'??' ???'?? '-'? ?'? ?' ????'?' ??'?'?? ??+:????? ?'??? ????? ?''???, ????'' ' ?' ?? ?'????'? ?????? ' ?'? '?, ??'??? '? ?'?-'? ??' ?? ?'?, '  ?' ??'???' ?'? ? ????%?? ??????'?. ??' '?? '?', '? ?' ??' ? ?-'? ??'', ?? ?? ?+ ? ???'?', ?'?' ????, '? ?'? ?? ?? ? ??'?'?? ??+:???? ?'??'?. ' ??? ???'??'???? ?????'? '???? ??+:???'?, ?? ???? ????, ?' ????????'??% ??.

???? ?????'?? ?'???? ??????, ???%??? ?? ??+?'???': 19. ???? ?'' '? '?'???? ?'?????' '?? ??? ? ?'?? ??????, :?'? '?, ???? ?? : ????'?', ?'? ?????'??. ?? ?? ?'?'?' '?''?????' '??? ???, ???'??? ??'???? ?? ??+?'???? '?-'? ?+??', ?? ? ??' ? ??+?? ?????? ????? ?+?????? ? ?+??'. (? ?'?? '?? ???, ?' ??? ?'?, '? ????-'? ???' '???, ? ?? ? ?? ??? ???????.) ???'??? ?'????, ''??????-???'??????', '?? ???, ?? ??+?'???? ????'?'?' ??+?? ????%???? ?????? ?' ???, ???'?''? ??'?'?? ????%?? ?'? '?''? ?'?????'. -??? ????' ' ????? '??????'?, '?, ?' +' ????-?+??? ??' ?'??'', '? ?''? ?'????? +'' ??????', ? ???'?''?, ?' ? ??'' +' ?'??? ?'???, '? ???'?''? ? ??%?'???', '? ?'? ?? ? ?' ?'??'. ?'?????? '?'??, '?'???'???????-??'?????', ?? ?''?'?? ?+??' ?'? '??????'?; ?'? ?: '?'??' ?? ????'?'?? ? ??-???-???'????? ??????, ???'??'? : ????? ' ????'. ?? ??? ? '??, '? ''??'?? ?''? ? ??%?'???', ?????'?'?? ? '??, '? ????''??? ??'?'?? ?': ?????? ?' ?'?, ?''? +''?, : ????''??? ?'? '???, '?+' ??'???'? ?' ? ?'??? ?? ?'??'.

'??? ???? ???'? ???: ???'??: ???, ?? ??%?'??, ?'??'?? ?? ????? '??  '???. '????'?, ?' ??????: '???'?''? ??? '?+' ??+?'. ????'? ?'? ?'??'??, ?'???' ????, ?' ????'?'?'? ?+ ?? ??'???, ?? ??'??': ??? ???'?''??? ?'???, '? ??'???, ?? ??'??': ????%?? ? ?? ???? '???'?'?'????? :?? ?'??, ? ??:-'? ???': ??????%?? ? ???'?''??'? :???? ?'??, ? ??:-'? ?' ?'', ??'?'?? ???'??'?, :?'? +' ?'?'. (??'???, ?? ??'??': ???'?''?, :?'? ? +'' +' ''???'??, ?? ??  '?+' +' ??+?.) ?? ?????'??, '? '???'?''?' ?' ?'? ????%? ?'? ????? '???'??? ?'?? ''???' ?'???'' (' ????%? ?'? ?'?? ????: ??????, '?: ?? '?''? ?'?????'). ???? ? ???? ???'?'?'???? ??, ?? ?'?-'? ??????, ??? ??? ''?', +'' ???'??? ?'?? ''???'?? ?'???' ( ?''? ?'?????, ...), ?????? ? '??, '?+' ' ?'?' '??? '? ??+?, ?' +' ?'???? ? ???'????' ?'????? '???'?''? '?+' ??+?'. ? ???? ?'', '? ?'? ?? ??? ??????'?? ?????. -??'??? ':???? '??? ???? '???, ???? ????'?' ?? ??+?'???' ?? '?'? ????'??'': ???'?? ?+?-

68 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??' ???? '?  ? ???? ??????? ??. (??' '?', '? ? ??? ?'? ??' '?? ????' ?'? ???? '?  ??, ??'???' ?'?, ?? ? ??'?'??, ? '?? ??? ????, '''??'? ?+?'??''??'???. ??%?'???' ??' ?'?'????? ???'??? '???'?''? '?+' ??+?' ? ?????' ?''???, ? ???? ???'?'' ?' ??. ?? ?' '???'?''?' ???'??'?? ?? ?? ??+?'????, ?? ???? '??? ?'?'???? ??? ???'??'?? ?? ?'?? ????'??.)

'??? ??, ???' ??, ??' ??' +''? ??'???'? ? ????%?? ?????. ?'?-'? ??? +' ??'?, '? ??? ''?' ?'??' ?' ? ??? ??? ? '??-'? ??????'?. ?? ?'?, ???'??? ????, ? '??'? ?'?? ???'?+'?? ??. ??'? ???'?+'? ?? ??'?? ? '??%??', +??? '? ???????'???? ??? ? ?+??' ' ?? ????, ?? ???' ?'??? ?? ???'?? ?? ??? ?' ?????? '??? ? ???????; '??? '??? ???'?+'?' ?? ???'???, ???? ?????? ?????' ?? '? '??  ???? ?'???, ?? '???, ?' ??'????? ?? ?? ??''?''. ' '?+?? ?'?, ?'???' ????, ???? ?'? ?????'?, '? ?????? ???'??'?? ?'? ??'???'?? ?'?? ?? ?' ?'? ???????, ? '? ??? ??'?', ?' ????? ????? ?'? ?????'?, '? ?????? ??'?'?? ??? ????? ? ?'???.

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

????  ? ?'?? ?'? ?''?? '?: ???': ?'??'???, ?? '-?'?'? ?' '???'? ???? 79'? ???'??? ?????'??? ????, ?' ?'?

''? 3. ?' ??'??? ? ???'? 69

?'??'?? ?'???, '? ??? ??+:???? ?'???. ?+? ? ?? ?????'?? ? ?%?'?, ??'????? ???'?' ?'?'? +'????? ??'????? ??? ??'?'?? ?'?'??. ????+?? ??, ???' ????, ???? ????, ???' ??. '??+:???'?' ?' ?'? ?'?? '???, '? '??? +' +''? ?????'. '??' ? '? ???? ?'???', '? ?'?'? '???'? +' ??'??? ???? ? :???? ?'??'??', ? ?????? ? ? '??, '? ??? ???'? +' +''? ?'??'?? ? ????? '???'? ??????. ?? ? '??? ?'? ??' +''? ??+:????? ?'??? '?, '? ?'?'? ??'?'?? :???? ?'??'?? ? '???'? ?????? 79?

' ?'?? ??' ???? ??+?' ? ??? ? ??????:. '? ?'??? ?? ?????'?? ?:???': ???+'? ?? ? ??' ???? ????' ''?????????? '???'?' ?? ?+???% ??'??'??? ? ??' '???'?? ???'????? ?'?' ?????'??? ??????????' ??'??', ???'???? ? ?????'??? ??????????' ??????. ????  ?? ??'?' ??, '? '?????'??? ?'???' ?'???? ? '??, '? ?'?'? ???'? +' ??'??? :???? ??????, '?'??' ??'? (?????? ??+'''???) ?'????? ? '?????? ???????' ??%?'????? :?????? ??????, ?+'??%?? ??? ?????'??, ??'??' ?? ?''?? ????'%? ?'?'?'. ????+?? :???? ????? ? +''? +' ?'?'??, +? ?'?'? ??+:???? ??'?'?? :???? ?'??'??, ?????, ?? ? ?'? ?'?', ?'? ????? +''? +' ???????? ?'?', ???'???? ??''?'? ?' ???. ?' ?' '%''??? '????'??? ???? ?'?'? ?' :?'?, ?? ????? ????, ?? ?? ?'' ?'? ? ????, ?' '? ? ?????? ???, '? ???'? ?'?? ??+:????? ? ?' ?'???'?, '? ?? ???' +' +''? ??'???'? '?'??? ??????, '? ?? ???' ???'????, ?'' ????, ???'.

? ?'? ??'????'?? ???? ?+?%'?? ? ???? ?'?''???? '? ?' ????'??''????' '??? '???'? ????? ???. '?+? '???'??, ??'?' ??, ??'?'?? ??+:???'? '???'???. (????  '?? ??? ?????'?? '????; ??? ?'? ????? ?'?'''?? ?' ??'? ??+?'??? ????.) ?''? +''?, '???'???' ?+??'' ??'??'?? ??+:???? '???'???'?, ?'??' ?'????? '???'? ??? ?'?? ????'??? ??'??'?? ??+:???? ?'??'?. ????, '? ?'?????: ?'?????? '???'? ????' ???'???'???' ?????, ?????, ?+?'''? +'??'??': ???? +'' ???'? ?'??'? ??'???'??? ??????': ''??. (????'? ??? +' ?+??' +'??'??' ??, ? +??? ?? ?'?? ?'??'? ??'???'???.) ?? '??? ???????' ?', ???? '???'?? ??'??'?'?? ??? ??????'? ?+??'? ?' ?????? ?'????? ???? ? ''?????' '???'????'. ? ????, ?? ?' ??', ????' ???? '??? ?? ??+?'???':, ??'?? ? ? ??''??' ??%?'?''??'.

???' '??? ?? ???? ?? ?'? ??'???', ?? ?????' ???'? '?? '???'? ???? ????'?'? ? ?'???%? ?+%? '???: ?'???'?'??' ??%???', '.. ???'??? ??? ???'??? ?????, ???? ????-

70 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

''? ?? ?'? ????'??'; ?'???''???, ?? ???' +' +''? ????' '?'??? ??+:???'? '???'???; ????? '???? ??????, '?+' ????'??? ???'??? ??? ??%?'???'?, * ???'?'?'???% ?? ???'??? ????? ?' ?'; ?'??? ?''?', '? ?? ? ????' +''? '???'???'?. ?????, ???'? ?'???? ???''? ?'?????? '?'?????? '???'?' ??? +' ???'?, ??? ? '?, ? ?? '?? ???, ?'???' '???'?, ?? '???'?? '?'?'' ??'??'?????? ????. ????? ''?'?'', '??'??'???? ???', ?'???' ????, ????'?'??' ??+?? ?'? ????'??'; ?''? +''?, : '???'?? ??'?'?? ? ?'???'?, ??+:???'?. ??  ??? +''? +' ???? ? ?'???? ?????'????? '???'? +?' ??+???? ?-??'????. ???'??? ? ?'?? ?'?, ?' ?'?? '???'??, '? ??? ??'?? +''? ??+:???'?.

??? +' '??'? '???'? ????'? ?'?' ?'???, ?'???? ?? ?'??, '? ???? ???'?''??? ??'?'?? ??+:????? '?'??? ?'?? ?'?????? (-'? ??'? +' ?'? ?' '?'?? ???''? ????.) ?? ?'???'??? +' ? ?'?? ?'?, +?'? ???? ? ??+???? ?-??'???? '? , ?? '?'?' ???? ? ??'??'???'? ????; ? ?+?: ?'??: ??? ??'??'?' ??+:?????'? '???'?, ??'??? ''? ? ?? ???'? +' ? ??%?'???'?' ? '?? ??'?', '? +?'? '?'?' ???' +' ?'? ????-'? ??? ?'???. ' ?'?' ???? ??'?', '? ?' ?'??? ? ???:??'. ' ?'? '?'?'' ?'???? '??'?' ???' +' ? +''? ??'??'???'? ????' ??', '? ?'?-'? '??? +' ???????'? ??? ??'? '?, ?? ?' ???????? '?'?'?', '.. ? ?? ?????'???? ?%?%??, :?'? ??? ?'? ??'? ? +''? +' ??'??'???'? ????. -' ???????'? ?'??'?'??' ? ?'? +?'. ?+?, ???'??? ????, +?'?, ? ?'' ?' '?'?'', ??%?'??' '?'??? ?? ?%?%?. ???'??? ???'???? ??? ????? ? ????' +''? '???'???'? ?'????, ?????'??? ?? ? ????''?????' '?+?????, ??????'??'? ? ?'?????? '???'??, ?? ?? ? ????' +''? '? ??+:???? '???'???'? 2*.

''? 4. '?????? '??' 11

''? 4. '-'?'??? ? '?????

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

' ?'???? '??' '??????'? ? ?-'? ?:????, ? ?-'? ?''??. ' '? ?????-'? ???? ?? ??' ?'?; ?? ???'????? ????? ?'' ? ???'???, '? ?? '? ????? ? ???' ': ?''??': '?????, ??'??': ?? ?' ??? ?'. ????  ?? ???' :, '? ? ??'?? ?+???'? ??? ? ??? ? ???'?????? ?? % +?' ?+???'?? ????? ?+ ?'???' ???, ??'??' ???' ??''?' +?' ''?? ?'?? ? ??'??': ???'''?? ??+?'???' ??? '??', ??'? ?????????? ?'?'' ? ??'?? ? : ?'????'. ' '?? ??'?'' +'' ? ?'??? ?'?? ??'??'??%?. -'? +'' ???+'???? +?'???? ?+???? ?''?, ??'??' ?'?? ? ?''?'?, ??? ? ?'?'???? ?'????, ? ???'???%? % ????'??? ??? ?'??': ?''?.

????? ? '???, ? ??????? ''???' ?'?? ?+??' ?????. ?: '????'??, ? ???+????' '??????, ??? ???? ?????, ??'?'?? ?'?????? '???? ?'? ??'????? ?'???'????? ?+?'?%? ?????' ??'??': ???'?????: ''???'??, ??'??' ? ?'????-????'???? ?'? ??'??'?? ?????? ''???' '?+'?????? ?'?', ?? ??'??', ?? ? ?'?'???, ??? ???'?'??' ???'? ?'?? ''???', '? ?:??' ?'-

72 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?? ? : ?'??:, ? ?'' : ?+?'. (?? ???' ? ???, ??'??? ?'? +'?' ???? ':???? ???? ???? +?'??'???, '????? ??:-'+? ??''?? ? ?????'?' ????'.) ?? ?'? ????? '???'??????? ??????' ???? ?+??? ? ?'??' ?'???'? ? ???'?'? ?????????. '? ?'?? ?????' '.?.???'? ? ? 1976 ?. +'' ??'?? ???'?, '? '????' '?????? '' ? ???:'. ?? '?????? +'' '?, ?'? : ???:???' *.

?'?'? '?????? ?????' +?????? ??''?. ?? ? ?? ?' ??? ?????' ??+'''???? '??? ????????? ???? ??? ??????????'?? ?''?, ? ??'??': ?'??'? ?'?? '?????? ???? ? ??:?'??? 2 ??'??' ??+??' ???' ? ??? '??? ? ???'??: ??+''?:' (1980), ?? ?''??? ?? ???'???? '??, ???+'?????'? ? ?? '???'????? ?? ?'? ?'???'' (1984). '??' ??? ? ?????? +?' ????'': ?'? '??? ??:?'????: ?''?.

???' ?????:?? ??'????? ? ?+'?' ???????''???? ??:?'?? ????'? ????, ??'??' ??' ??? ??'??? ?'?? ? ?? ?'?'?, '?????? ?????' ?'?? ? ???'?'???'???????? ''???'???? ??:?'?? ? ???+????' ? ??? -????? '??'??'. ?' ?????'?? ?? ????'?? ??'? ?'?' '??????, ????'?'??' ? ?? ??:?'????: '???: ?????' ? ?? ???'???, ??'??' ???' ? ????? ??'?'??. ???? ?': ????'?? ?'??'' ?? ?'? ????'??'? ?'???'??? ???'? ?? '???'??%?? ??' ??'??'? ??????. '?+'?? ????' ???', ?' ???''??' ?? ? ???: ?????''??': ???:, ?' ?' ??%?'???? ?? ?'? ?????? '???, '? ?' ???'???'? ??'???????, ?'? ????'??? ???? ?? ?????? ???'??, ???'???'? ????? ????? ??+?'?????? ????? ' ???'???'? ???+????' ?' :?'? ???? ? ???': ?'??: ?'? ????' ?'? ?'+??'?' ?? +???'??.

-??? ??? '???????? ??'' ???+'?, ?+?' '?? ?'????'?????? ? ? ?+?' '??''??' ??+''?' (1970): ?? ???'???'? ??, ?'??? +', ??????'?': '?': ??-???':, '?' '?', '? '???? ???'??, ?? ??? ??????'??, ?:???' ???'???? ?'?? ? ??'????'?? ?????', '??'?? ??'??? ?????'? ? ???? ?? ?'????? ? ?? ??+''? ????????? ?'?????? ?????'?? ? : ?'????'', , ??-?'??':, '?' '?', '? ??'??, ?? ?? ??'?', '?+?''??' ?????' ???'? '?? '?? ???, '? ?'?'?, '? ???''??? ???'? ????, ????+?? '??? ??'???, ?????' ??? ?'????'?? ???''.

'?? ??? ??? ?'??? ???: '??''??' ??+''?', ? '??''??' ???'????' ' '??''??' ?????''. ? ?'? ???? ?'??? '?, ???:???%? ? ?? '????'?? '?????? ???'??%? ? '??, '? ?'? ?+????? ? ??'%? ?'? ??'????', ?'???'????? ???'?? ' ??:?'???? ???+'?' ?'??' ??+???'? ? ???'???? ??'?'?? ??+''?. ? '?????? ??'? ???+??? ?'??? ?'?? ?? -????? ?

''? 4. '?????? '??' 73

'??, '? ???? '?  ???'? ??' +''? ? ????? ?'? ????? ?? ?'???'???, ? ?????? ?'? ?' ?? ??'???'???; ?????, ? ??? +' ?????? ???'? ??'???? ?? ??????? ???'? ?? ????'???, ? ?????? ?? ?'?? ?? ?'?'??': ???'??. '?  ? ??'?'?????? ????? ?'' ??+?? ?' ??' ?????? ?'?' '??????: ??+''. ????, ???? ?' ?????? ? ???-'?, '? ?? ?????' '??-'? ???'?, ?', ?? ???'?, ? ?????? ??+''. ?????, ?' ??????: ''??' ??? ?? ??? ????', ?? ?' +' ??? ???? '??', ?? ?' ????? ??? ???? ??? ? ?????'?'???. ????? ????+?'? ?', ?? ?'???' '?????? ? ?+?' ''????? '??? ???'??? ? ???'??:' (1967), ??'?'?? ??+??'?. '????? '??? '???? ???'??? ?'?'??' ?????? '?: '??%?'??' ??+'', ??'??? ?'? ??+'' ?????-'??'??-???-????-??'. (' ????'???? ?? ?'? '????'??'?? +?' ????'??.)

? ?'??? '?? ???? -??? '?????? ?'' ???'? ?+?''??? ? ???? ???'?. ?' ?' '????'??? ?'????? ? ???'??: ?? ?'????? ? '??+''?:', ?? ?'???'?? ????'??, ?????' ??, ???? ??' ??'? ????'??' ?'??'??, ??'??' ??'????' ?? +?' '?????': '????'????:, ?????, ???? ''??' ??? ?? ??? ???? ? ????' ?'' ??+?? ''??' ??? ?? ??? ????'. ?? '??????? '????'???? ?' ?? ?? ?'?'??': ????', ????'??': '??'?: '+''? '?, ?'? ???' ?? ???? ? ????' '+''? '?, ?'? ???' ?? ????' ?' ?? ?'?? ? ?? ?' ?'???'???? ?????+ ???' ?' ?????? ?? ?'?????. ?? ?' ?' ???'?? ? ??'? '?????? '???' ???'??? ''??' ???' ?? ???? ? ????' '?-'? ???? '??%?'??' ??+'', ??'??? ?'? ??+'' ????? '??'?? ??? ???? ?? ??'??? ?'? ??+'' ????? ??? ? ???? ??', '? ?' '????'???? ?? ??? ??????'?? ?'' ??+?? ???? ????? ?'?. (''? ????+?': '????'????? ?? ???'??' ????'? ??'??: ????'??' ' ?? ?'??' ?? ?????' ?'??'??.)

????? ??? ????' '??????'?. ? '?????? ??????? ?'?? ??' ????. ?? '??' ??'?? ?? ????: '?' ??%???' + '???'?'. ?'  '?????? ??+?'?? ??'?'? ??+''? ? ???? ??'?'???, ?? ??'?, ?? '??? ???:??, ???'?'? ???'??'? ??'?? ?'? ??'???'?? '???'?????' ??+''?, ???????? ???? ?????+??, ??+''?, ???????? ????? ?????+??. ' ??'? ????? ??'?? ?? ???'?' ?'???%?: ?' ??+''? ??' ??? '  ???' ??? '  ?'??'??, ?? ??'?' +''? ???? '?  ??+''?.

? ?'? ???? ???'?, '? ??+''? ? ?'????'?? ? '??? ???? ?%?, ??'??' ????' +''? ???? ?'??'???. ?+? ???'??' ''???'', ????? ????, ?'', '? ???' ?? : ??'%? ???? ???'??' '?'', ?'??' '?'??? ? ???'???:. ??? ???, ?'?-

74 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

' '?????? ? ?+?' '??'??' ?'?????' (1967), ???  ?????' ? '??????'??, ?? '?'??? ?' ?''??? ?:??'???'? '?????? ????, ??'??? ?' ??'? ??? ????'???'? ???'????, +? ??'?'??, '? ?' ???? ? ??' +''? ?????????? ??'? +''? ?'?'???? ??'??. ???'??? '???????, ? ???'?''????' ??'??' ?'????? ?? ? ??'??'??'?? ??? ??+''??. ???'??? ?'? ? ??' ?'???'?, '? ?' ??? ?'???'?'?'? ?? ??+''? ?? ???? '?  ??+'' ? '?? ??????, '? ?? ??' ??? '  ???' ??? '  ?'??'??.

'?????? ? ???? ?'?'? '? ????%?, ??'??? '' ? ????? ?? ????, ???? ?'???'?, '? ???? ??+'' ?'?'??' ????? ???????, ?' ?'???'?, '? ??? ?'? ????? ??+''?? ??%?'??' ????????+?? ????. ????? ?? ??+?'?' ?? ???: ??-???':, ?' ??? ?'?, '? ? ??'?'?? ????? ', ? ?? ?? ?'??, ???? ??? : ???'?', , ??-?'??':, ' ?????, ??'??' ?' ???'???, ???? ?????? ? ??'???? ???, ????' ? ????'? , ?? ???'?, ? ????' ? ?+ ???'??%? ???. ?????, ?' ??? ?'?, '? '? ?'??' ????, ???? ??' ? '?'?', ???'???? ? '?, '? ?'?? ????????+?? ???? ??? ??+''?, ??'??? ?' ???'?? ?? ''? ??' ? '?'?'', ??+''?, ??'??? ?' ???'?? ?? ''? ?'??' ????'. ? '? ? ?? ? ??%?'??' ?'?????? ???, ?'??%??, '? ?' ?'?-'? ??' ? '?'?', ?? '??' ????. ?'  ?' ???'''?? +' ?'????'???'? '??? ???, ??+?'?? ?? +?'?? +?'?? ?????+???'? (''??? '????-'? ????', ????? ? '???-'? ?'??'', ??? '??-'? ??'?? ? '???-'? ??'') ?' ?' +' ? ???? ??????? '???', ??'??'? ????'?'?' +' ??+?? '?? ?????+?? ???? '???, '? ?????'? ? ????'????? ?'?. ????? ??+'' ??+:???? ??' ???'? ? '???: '?, ?'?' '??????, ??? ? ????'?? ??? ?'??''? ?'???? ???, ??'????? ? ?'?? ??%:?? ?+?'??''??'? ???? ??????'? ??'?? ???.

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

''? 4. '?????? '??' 75

???? ???? ?? ?????'?? ' ??? ?????'?? '? ?? ?', ?' ?'???'??' ?? ?+???, ????, '??, ?????, ???, ???? '.?. ?' ??? ?'+?'? ???-'? ???? ?:, ????, ?????, ? ??'? ?+?????? ???'??? ??? ??????, '? ?? ?'?? ? ???, '??'??? '? ?? +??'?'. ????? ?'?, ??'?' '??????, ????%??'? ???.

??:?'?? ???? ? ?'? ????'. ????? ???'??? ?? ??' '?'??'??' ?'??' ?+?????? '????: ???'??, ???'??? '? ?? ?+??'??'???, '?, ?? ???'?' ???, ??'?????'? '??? ??''? ?'??? ? ????'??' '?'??'?'. ?????, ?'???' '??????, ?' '?'??'??' '???' ?+?????? +???' +???'?', ?' ?' ? ?????'?? : ? '???'??' ???'?????': ??'?????' ?' ???? '???, '?, ?? ?????'?'??, ?' '?'??'??' ?'??' ?'?' '???.

???? +''? +' ??'?, '? '???? ??? ?????' ? '?? ?''??'?? ? ???'???? ????????'? ??'?, ?? ?'???? ? ? '?, '? '?????? ?'?' '???'??'? ??????'. ?? ???? ???'??'? ???? ?????' '?????? ? ?'????, '? ? ??%?'??' ?'???: ?????, ???'??%: ??''??? ? '???. (??? '??''??'?' ?? ?' ? ???, ? ?'' ?' ???'??': ?'???????? '?? '???'?, ? ?%?%?? '??? ????+??, '?+? ??+'', ??'???, ?? ?'? +''? ? '??'??, ?? ??%?'??, ????' ? ?+ ???????'???? ??'????? ?' '?''?, ???'???, ??'?, ???'???... '?...') ?+? ?' +' ??%?'???' ???, ?'????%?, '? ????? ?, ???? ? ??? ???? ????:??' '??? ??+''/?, ? ??? ???? ??'?? ????'??? ??? w, '? ??? +''? +' ?-'? '??, '? ?' ???' +' ????'?'? '???? ? '??  ???? ??'?', ? ???? ?' ??? ????'?'? ?? ???'??? '??? ?????'??. ? '?? ??? '??????, ???? ? '???': '?+' ????'? ???-'+? ??? '????, ?' ??'?' ????'? ?? ???? ???+??? ?????'???', ???'????' '??? ????+????, ??? ? '?? ??'?', ? ???? ?'? ??????? ? '??? ?????'??.

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

???'???'? '???????? ?' ?'????? ? ???'??: ?'????? ? ??'??': ????: ???? ?''? ??'??? ? ??' ''???'-

76 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??? ??:?'??, ?????'?'? ??'??? ?? ???'????? ?', ?????????? ? ???'???? '??, ??'????, ?? ???+%' ?? '??????, ?? ??+''?' ? 1953?. ????? ? ???? ?????'???? ?? ?' '??? ????'?'?? '?? ? ?''? '??'? ??' (1967) '  ? ?????? +?' ??'?'???, :?'? ?'?'?  ?????????? ?+?' '???'? ?'? ?'?'???': ?'???' (1970). ' ?''??: '??'??? ?'???'?' (1973) '' %'? ????? ?' (1973) ? ??+?'? ?'?? '?? ??'?? ???'??'? ??????', :?'? ? ? ???? ??????? ??? ?????'? ? ??:??'?? 4.

'?????? ??' ? ?????? ? '??, ?? ? ?'??' ??? ???'???? '???. ' '?, ?' ?'?' ??, ?' ?????'?'? ?? ?? ????? ??%?? ?? ?'???'. -'? ??' ?'????; ?+'?? ?' ?:??? '???, '? '??%? ?? ?'????' ??'??'?? ?'??, ???'??? '????? ????'?, ?? ???'??? '??? ???' +' ?'??'??'? '?, ?'? ?? ??????' ?'???. ????? ?'? ?? '??% ?? ?'???' ??????'??'?? ?? '?'???, ??% ????? ??', ?', ? ???? ????, +'?'?? ?'???'?'??'?? ? ???'????. ?? ??', ?'?? ?''??'?? ??? '?'??? ??'???, '? : ????' ???'???; ?? ?'?? ????+?? ??? '?: ?'???, ?? '+''? ?'??', ?'?'?? ? '?? ??'?'???? ??'?, ??'??'? ?? ?????' ? ???'???, ?'?? ??'??': ??'??'??. (' ? ???????? ??? ????.)

???'??? ???'?, ?? ????' '??????, ? ???+%' ??, ? ?????, '? ??' ?'??? ':?????'. (?????  ??'?? ?????'?? ???'??.) ????? ???????'? ? ?? ?' '?: ???'???, ?? '?? :????? ?'??', ????'?' ?'''? : ?' ???'??? ??: '?? ??'??'?? ?'??', ??? ?'''? '?? ?+???, '? ?? ?'??'? : '?????? '???' ?'???'?? ????'?, ???? ?'??? ???'?? ?'' ??+??: '?? ?????' ??-??'???', '??? ?? ???? ???'?? ? ?'' ??+??: '?? :?????'. ?' ?+?+%'? ????? '???????? ?? ?????? ???'??? ? ???'??:, '? ? ?? ????? ?:??' '???'? '?????? ' ????'???? ??'? ?'? ' ?'?? ? ???'???: ?????'?': '???, ??'??? ???'???'?'?? +' ?' ? '?'?????? ?'????? ??? '???? ??? ???'????', '? ? '?, '? ??'?? ? ??' ?':  ??': ?'?? ' ?'? ? ???'???: ????: '???. ''? ??? ?'? ??' ''?  ???, '? ???'?, ?? ???' '?: ???'??? '???' ?' : ?'???'??''. ?'???''???, ? '?'??'?? '?????? '???'', ?????' ??, ??'?'?? '?'?'???? ?? ???'?'. ?? ?'?? ???'?' '?' '????' ?'? ?' ?? ???'?' ?? ? '?'?+??'? ?'???'???' ????-????, ?' ??'??'? ?????'?'?' ?? ?????+ ?'???' '': ?'???? ???'??? 5; ?? ? ???+??? ??'??', ?' ???'???, ????'??% '?????? '????, ?? ' :????? ??' ??-??'???. ?????'??? ??'? ?'? ?' ????? ?'? +???, ?'?? '??? ?'?????'??, '???-

''? 4. '?????? '??' 77

??? ??'??, ???'??? ??' ?????+' ??'?? ?': ???'????%:?? ?'??'??, ????'??' ????? '????, '?'? ??' +???????? ????'? ???'???, ????%:?? ? ?'?.

???? ? ?????????? ? ?' ?''????? ? ???-'? ?????'?'? ?? ???'??? ? ?'?, ??'??'? ?' ? ?'?? ? ???????'?, ?' ?+'?? ?+?%??? ????%?? ? ?'????, ??????, ??+?? ? ?+??? ????'?. ????? ?, ?? ??%?'??, ?+??' ?? ? '??, '? ???? ?'? ?? ?'??' ?''?, :?'? : '??? ????' ? ?+ ????'??? ??'???'?' ????'?'?? ? :??'? :?????? ?'???? :?????? ?+?? ????'?. ????+?? ?????? ? ?????+? ????'? ???'?? ?????? '??????. ?? ??'?' ?+% ?'? XX ?. ????%? ? '??, '? ??%?'??' ???? ??? ?'??? ???, ???'??? ?' ? ??' ??'????'? ? ??'?? ????? ???'???, ?' ?? ???'??, ?? ??: ??'???: ??? ?'???. ?? ? ?+?? ????'?, ? ?'???? ? ???+%?' ?? ? ????'??' ??????'? ??'??? ?'????' ?'? ???'??? ? ??'??': ????: ' ?'? ???'??? ? ???'??:. ??'??, ?'??? ?+?? ????' ???' ?? ? +'???, ?? ????' ? +'???, ?? ???? '??????, ???'??'? ? : ????? ?' ???'??? ''??' ?+' ??'. ???'??? ? ????: ???? ???'? '?????? ?+?%'?? ? ???????.

' ?+?' '? '?????? '?? ???' (1953) ???? ????' ?' ??? ''??? ?'??', ??????%? '?? ???'????'??'? ????'??, ?? '?+??'', '?'??'??'', '?'???', ''??? ???', ??'??%? ? ?+? '? ?'????'??' ????'?, ?? '??????'?', '?''???', '??''. ???? ?'??, ?'???' ????, ?''??? '?? ???%? ? ?'''?'?'???? ?'????, ?' '??? ???. '?????? ??' ????'?? ??+?''? '???, ??'??? ?'??'??' +' ?? '?, '? ?' '?+?? ?' '?? ???, '.. ????'?' +' ?? ?'???'???'? ???'???, ?? ??'??? '??????? ???%'?? +' ? ???: '?? ?'??'. (?? ? ?+?' ''????'? + ?'??' (1970) ?? +??' ?'?'? ???????'? '???, '? +''? +' ???'??? ??'? '??? ?'??; ????' ?'??, ??' ??, ???? ?? '?? ? ??'? '???'?''' ???'???? '??, ?? ???????? '??? ??'?? ? ????? ????? ?'??': ???'??? '?????????? ?'?? ? ???'???:, '?  ??, ?'???' ??, ?????? '??? ? '? ?????? ???%?'?'??'?? ? ????? '??: ?+??'??. ?? ? ?? '??? ??? ???'??' ????' '?'???', ?? ? '?, ?? ?? ???'??' ????' '??'.) 6

???????'??? '???, ??'?' ??, ????????'????' ??, ?? ?'????'?? ?? '? ' q' ????'?'?? ?'????'?'? ???? p <7; ????? ???', ?? ?'????'?? ?? '?'??''':' ???'???, ????%: ???+???' ?????', '? ?? :, ????'?'?? '?, '? ?' ?????' ?'??'???'?? ?????????'? ???'???''????'??; ?????,

78 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?' ??'? ????'??? ?'??, '?'??'''' ???'??? ?? <?? ?'? ?' ?' ?'??'???'?? '??? ??????????? ???'???''????'??, ?? <'??? -???+??????, ??? ?'?>, '?? ?+??? ??????? ??'??? ????''? ?'????'? ??''?????': ???'???. ??  '?????? ???', ?? ?'????'? ?'????? ? ???'??: ????'?'?? ?'????'?? ?'????? ? ??+''?:. -'? +''? ?'??, ??, ?? ?? ????, :????? ?'??, ???'??? +' ???+'? ? ??'?'??? % ??'?.

???'? '?????? ??'?? ?? ??'?? ? ??'?'?????? ?'???? '???. ''???, '?? ??? ???'???' ???:, ?' ??' ?? ? ?'?' ???'??, ?' ???? ?' ???'?? ???'?? ???'???'? ? ?: ????'? ?????, '????'???? ??', '????'???? ???'? ' ?'???': ??'. ? ???'??, '???, ???? ???'??' ??, ? '?? ??? '??????, ?'???? ?+'???? ?'?; ??  ? ?'?' ??????' ?????+???'? '?????? ????'??? ? ?????'? ? ???+'??, ????? ? ???+'??? ???'?'?'??: ?'??'???, ???'??? ?'?, ??'???, ?? : ????, ? ?+???' ????''???''????? ?'??.

????? ??'?' ???'??' '?????? ? ???'????'?????. ?????' ?? '????'?? ?'?'' ?' ', ? '????'?? '??????, ''?? ?'?'', ?' ????' '?'??? '? ?'???, ?? '?'??', '???'???''????'?', '???'??', '?'???'???? ????' 7. ''? ??+?'? ?'?'?  ??'??? '?? ??? ?? ????, ?'' '??????, ??' ??' ???'??? ?????'?? ?, :??'??? ?'? ': ???'???, ??'??' '???', '? ?' (? ?????'??? ?'? L), '? ?'??'? ???'??? ??'????'??? ?'???? ??? ???'????, ?+'??%? '?? ?????'???, ???/;. ?' ???? ?'? ??''?, ?????' ??, ??? '??'' ? '?' '?'??? ?'', ??' ? '?'???'. ' ??'?'' ?' ??'?? ???'??? ?'????' ('-???'???) ???????: '??? +'' ?'??? (? ??????? ?'?), ?' '?'??? ?' ??? +'. ???? ?' ??? ???'??? ? '???'??' ?????' '?? ???????, ? ?? ?'??' ???''??'? '-???'???. ?' ?? '?? '??? ?' ???'? '?, '? ?? ?'?, '.. '??? ?'?', '?, ?? ??' '?????? ? ???? '?'?' ????'??', '?' ???' +' ???%?'?'? ????? ????? ???'??? ???? ?'? ?? ?'?? ?'?, '? ?'? ?????'. ?? ? '?'??? ?'? ?' '?? ?'??' "?'? ? ?''?:, ?? ?'????'?? ?? ???'??? ?'? ??' ?' : ?'???'??', ???? ??? ???'??? ?'??' ??+?? ???? ??? ?+??? ?'?? ?'??'???' ???? '???? +'????? : ?'????? ? ?+??'? ? ??'. ???'? ?????? +??'?'?? ?'??? ? '???'???? '??!

????? ? ?'? ??': ??? ????? ??'?', '? ?? ????'? ?'?' ??????? ? ?'?'???'? ?'?? ? '?'??? ??'???, '? ?'? ?????' ? ???'??? ???????, ?? ??'???, '? ?'?'???' ?'? ????' ???????' ????'??' ?'???, ??'??' ? ????' ??? ? '?, '? ???'? +' ?'??'??'? :. ' '?? ??????? ??'??? ??'?

''? 4. '?????? '??' 79

?'? '?: ???'???, ??: '???-'? ??? ?????' ' ''? ??? ?????'', ?? ? ?'? ???'??? '? ??? +'' ?????'. ? ???'? ??'??, ?' ? ???'??? ???'? ? '??, ?'??? ?'? ???'?? ' '???, ?' '?'??? ?? ?'?'??? ????'?'???'? ?? ?? ?????? , ?'???''???, ?' ??, ? ???? ??? ?' ?? ? ???? ????' ???? ??'?' ?'??' '+'''. ' ?'?' ??????? '?????? '????'??' ??? '-???'?? ?'???%? ?+???: '? ??? +'' ?????' ?'??? ? ??????? ?'? ?? (??'?'???) ???????? '?????/7 ? ????' ???? /, ?' '?'??? ?' ???, ?????'????? '????? p ? ????' ???? /, ????? ?? ???? t'.

-'? ???'?? ???'?'?' :??'???? ???+????'? ?' '??????. ' '??? ?? ?', ?? ? ???????, ?'?' ???'?? ???? ?'?, ??'??? ??????'?? ???'????? ?'?, ? ????? ?? ?' ?'?' ???'??, ?'????'?????? ? ?'? '??. (' ????? ?'? ?+ ?'? ??'??'?? '????'? ????????, ?? ?'? ??+?''???.) ?'? '?? ? ????' ??'? ??''?? ? '???' ' ??-'+? ???? ?:???' ?'????'??' ?'???. ?? ?? ?'??'?' ''?????? '????' ?:?????? ???'??? '? ??'? ????' ??'? ? ?? ????? ?? ???.

?'?? ??'???? ? ???????, ?? ?'? ?'?'??'?? ?' ???????, ?????'??? ?:???? ???'?? ? '?? '?????? ????'?? ?? ???? ?', ?'? '?? ?? % ????' ????'??' ?'???, ????? '???, ?????'????? '?????/?' (?? ?'??? ?????? ??. '' %'? ????? ?', 1973). ?'???'?? ????'?, '? ?'????? '-???'?-? ?' '??? +'' ?'???, ?' '?'??? ?' ??? +' ?' ? ???'?''????' ? ????''???'? +' '??????. ?+? ?? ???'?'?? ???'??? ???+'?. '???' ?' ?'? ?????'? '???; '??????? ??'?+??'?? +' ?', ??'??'? ?'??' +' ?' ??? ?'? ???'??? ???'??? '????'?'????'? '''??' ' '??? ?'? ??'??'. '?????, ?? ?????''??'? ???' ??????' '??? ?': '??? ?' ???, ??'??? +?'?? ????'????? ???, ??'?'?? +'??'.

?????, ????+?' ???'??? ?' ??? ????'?, '?'??? ?' ?' ????? ?? : ???'??': ?'?. ?? ?' ???'???, ?'???' '??????, ??' ?? '?? +'????? '???, '? '?????' ??'?'??? ??'? ? ?? ???'???, ? ??'???? ?? ??'??'??'. -'? ?'?'??' ?? ?????'? ????: '?+' ????'? ???'??, ?' ??'?' ?'? ?? ?? ?'?, '?+' ????'? ?', ?' ??'?' ????'? ?? ???'??. -'? ?+?'??''??'?? ?'?'?' '?????? ?'?'?'? ??? ???' :?'?: '?' ??? ??'???'? ?? '?+??? ???'??? (' ?'??), '?'??? ??'???? ?? ????? ???'??? ( ?'??) ?????? ?'?'. ?? '??? ??'?'??, '? ???? ?'?'??? '-???'?? ? ?' ?? ?? ???'???, ?'???''??? ??'????? ??? '????'??'??. ????, ????? ? ???''??'???, ???%?'?'??'? ??????'??? '?????? ?'??-

80 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

? ???'??': ?'? ?:?????? ???'???, ??? ???+%' ?? ?'? '??, '? ?' ??'?' ?'?, '?+' ????'? ??'?, ??'???? '???? ??? ???'??? ???' ? ??? ?'?.

'? ?'? ?? ?? ' ???? ?''? +??????'?. (?? ?'?? ?''? +????????, ??'? ??+?'?, ??? ?'???'? '??????.) ?? ?????? ?'?' +???????'?? ? ??'???. '?-???':, ???? ? ?+'????????? ???''? ?'?, ?? ??? ?????', ??'?:? ?+?'??' ?' ? ?????? ? ????: '???, :?'? ?? ?'? ?' '???, '?+' ?'?'? ??'??? '??? ?'? (?'??? ? '?+??' ?? '??????) ' ? '??? ???'????? '????' ?'?, :?'? ???? ?'? '?+??? ?'???' '??????? ''???? ?????? ??'?? '???, ?? ?' ??? ??'???'? ?'????'? ?'?'????? '-???'??? ?? '??????. ? '?'? ?' ?'? ?????? ? '??, ?'??? ?' ?? (? ?' ?? ??'??, '? '-???'?? ?'???), '? ??? ?' ' ?'?? ?' ?? '??? ?'???, ?'???''??? ??'????? '????'??'??. ?' :????? ???'???? '??, ?? ?????' ?? '??????, '?+?'?? ??????? ?????????'?. ?? ?? ????' +''? ??????' ?? ???'??: ?'??????

?''? '?????? '??'??? ?'???'?' '' %'? ????? ?' ????' ?'? ?'?'' ? ?' ??????'. ?? ?????? ??????? '?????? ??????', '? ?'????? ? '??? ?' ?'? ? '??? ? '??, ?? ?' ?+'?? ?? ' ?'???'??? ?? ??+?'???'? ?'? ' ?'? ????: '???. ' ?? '?? ??'???'?? ?'??'?'???', ? ?'' ?' '?? ????????, ??-'+? ?'?''? ? ??:?'?? ' ? ???'??'??. ????, ?? ?'?' ?????? ? '??, ???? '??? ?' ???' +' ?'?, '?+' ?'? ???????'? ??'???'?, '?, ???? ???' '?? ???'?'?'???%: ??'???:' ??????' ?'?? 'Es regnet', ?? ?????', '? ?' ????, '? ?'??? ?' ???' +' ?'? ?'? '???. (-??? ?? ? ??+?'?' ?' :?'? ? ?'' ?'? ?? '???? ???, ?' '?, ?????'??? ?' ?? ?'?, ?' ???' +' ?'???'???'? ?'???? ???' ? '?? ??'?', ? ???? ?? ???' ?? ?'???'???'? ? ??', ?'? ????''? +' ?? ?'??'? ???+????' ??? ?'??? ???'??, ??'??' ???' ? ????'. ?', ?? ?????? ?'?, ?'? +''? +' '?, ?' +' ???' ??': 'Ich glaube dass es regnet' ('? ????, '? ?' ????'), ?? ??? ?''??%? ?'??? ??'?'? ???'??? ???+'??, ?????'? ? ???'???? ????.)

??????? ?'? ?'????? ?????? ?' ?'??? ?' ??, '? ^-???'?? ?'???? ?' ?'?' '? ?+?'??''??'??, '?, ???? '??? ?'?' ???'??'?? ? ??'? '?? ???, ?' ? ??? ????'? ??????'? ? ??'? ??'???, ?? ?'? ?'' ?????, '? ???'??, '????'???? ? ??? '?? ?'?, ?'??' ?''? '???'?'? ???????' ?:?????? ???'???. ?+? ? ?'?? ?'? ?' ?'?'???'?? ?'?? '??'?'?? ???'?'? ???????' ?? ????'?'?? ?'??? '?' '?  ??? ??', ?? ??? ???? '???'?? ??? ?' ?''??? ?+????'? ? ????%?? '?? ?'?'.

''? 4. '?????? '??' 81

'? ?'? ?'?' ?????? ????'??, ?' ?' ????'?? ?+, '? ?''??? ?'????'???'? ??-????? '??? ?'?' ?'? '???????? ?'?. ?????'??, '? ?:???'? ??'?'?? ???'?? 'La neige est blanche', a ???'??, ??'??? ?' '????'??? ? ??? '?? ?'?, ??' '?: '??? +''. ' ??'?'' ?' ??'??: 'La neige est blanche' ?'??? ??-'?????, ?' '?'??? ?' ??? +'. ?? ? ?? ?'? ??????? ?''?, '? ?'? '?? ?' ??'? +?' ??? ?+?'' '??????, '? '? ?? ?????'?? '?? '?? ???, '? '??? ??? ?'??'?? ?'? ?'?, ??'??'? '??? ? ?', ? ?'? ???'?????? ?'?. ?''? +''?, '?????? ? ???+??? +?????'?, ?'??? ? ?'? ???'??? ???'?????? ?'? ?' ??? ?'?, '? ???'??? ?'????', ??'??' ?'?' ??'?? ?'? ??? '??, ?? ??'??'?? ?'??'? ?: ?'????'? ??'? ??.

-'? ?'???'?? ????? ???+'?, ??'??' '?????? ?'''?? ??'? ? '??'???? ?'???'', ???'??? ???:??, ???''??'???%? ? +?'???? ?'?? ????, ?? ? ?????? ?? ?'?? ? ???'??'??? ???? 8. ' ???? ??+'''???? '????'???? ?'?' ?'?? ??' ?'???%: ?' ?????? ?+?, ?? ??: ?+?'??''??'?: ???' ??????' '??: 'Es regnet'. ?' ?' ?+????, '? ?? ??????' , ???? ?' ????, '? ?' ????'?? '???? ??? ???''??'???: '???' ????'' ? ?????'???? ???+%?'??, ? ??++?'? ??? ???' ?'' ?'??'?, '? 'Es regnet', ?'? ??? ?+' ???' ?' ????'. -'? ??'?'?? ???''??'??? ? ??'?? '-???'???: 'Es regnet' ?'??? ??-???, +??? ????'? '????? ? ????' ???? /, ?' '?'??? ?' ?' ???? ?+' ? ????' ???? t. '?????? ?????', '?? ?+???, '?????'? '?????'??'?' ???:?? ? ?'??, ???'? ??'????? ???' ??????, :?'? ???'??' ?? '?? ?'? ?+?? ???''??'? ? ??'?? '?'?+????' '?? ?'?'. ?? ? ?' ?? ????''??? ?': ???????, '?+' ?'?'??? ?' ?????? ???:??, '? ?' ??? ???'?'? ???? ?????: ??? ? '?'??? ???', ?? '?+?? ?????? '? ???+%?'?, ? ?'??'???: ??'????? ?' %? ???'????% ???''??'?? ?? ''?':? ??'?'?? '???... ?? ?????' ...', ??' ??+'??? ' '?'?. -??? '?????? ?+?%'?? ? ?????, ??'??'? ? ????+??': '????'????: ??? ??'? ????? ??' ??? ??'? ? ???????': ???'??: ???????: ?? ??????? ? ???''??'?:. ???'??? ?'??? ?????, ?' ?' ? ??? ?'???'???'? ?'??'??? ????? ????? ???? ??%?'? '?? ?'??'??% ??????????'? ?+??? ????, ??'??' ? +?'????'? ???? ???'???'?? ? ??? ??+?'???'? ?'???'? ??'??'?? ?'??'? ? '?? ??? ?': ?'???'??, '? ? ?? ?' ??????? ?''? ?'? ??%?'?? ???'??'?, ??%? ?+??? ???? ?????+?'? '?-'+? ??'?', '.. ?+'??%? ?'???, ? ????'? ?????+?'? ??????'? ???.

???? ??''?? '?'? ??????. ??'?'?? ' '-???'?? ?'??'?? ???'??? ? ??? ? ????? ?' '?????? ????', '?

82 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?' +' ?' ?''?' '?'??? ?'????'?' ???, '? '-???'?? ?'? '??? +'' ???'? +' ??'? '?: ?'? ???'?? ?'???, ?' '?'??? ?' '?? '?? ' 2+2=4, ? '?'??? '?: ?'? ???'?? ?'???, ?' '?'??? ?' ??? +'. ?+? ???'??? ???'????'???? '???, ? ??'???? ?+?'' '??????, '?+? ?'??? ???'?? ??' +''? ????'?'?? ???'? '?+??? ??????? ?'????? ???'???, ?'? ? ???'?' ? ?'????'?? ?? ???'???, ? ??'??' ?'? ???? ???'?? ?:??' ???'???? ?'??. -'? ? +''? ???+'??? ?'? ???????, ?????'??? ?? ???'?'???', '? ^-???'?? ??'?? ????'?'?'? ??+?? ?????. ?'?? '?????? ??????; ?? ?' ??', ?? ? ??' ????'? ???'?'???'? ?'?. ?' ??? ???'???, ?????' ??, '? ????''???''??? '??? ?'?' ? +??' ?????'? '? ???'??' ???'???. ?? ?' '???' ? ????'?' ?? ????'?'? '-???'??? ?? ???'???, ??'??' '??' ??'. ? ??? ?' ?'?'????'? '-???'??? ?'???''??? '??, ??'??? ???'?' :, ?? ?'?, ??????, ?????'?'??? ? ???'??': +?' ???: '????'????: '??????. '?' '??? ?'??'??' ??, '? ?? ?????? ?'??'??'?, '? ?-???'??? ??? ??'?' ?????'?'?'? ?? ??+:???? ?'? ?'???''. ?? ???? ? ?'?? ????' ??'?? ????'?'??? ??'???? ???'? ???''? ?'?. ?' ? ??'???? ? ??'? ????? ???'????%???? '?', '? ???' ?????': 'Es regnet', ?' '?'??? ?' 2+2=4. ???'??? ?'??? ?????'????' +??' ?'? ??'?, ?? ????''???, ??'?' '??????, '?+' ????'? ??? ?????+???'? ?''? :???? ?'?: '?? ?'?' ?'? ?????'?': ???'???, ? '? '?+' '?'??? ???' ???'???'? ? '???: ???.

???'??? ? ?????? ?' '?????? ? '??' ???'. ? ?? ?????'?' ??'?????, ????? ? ??'?????? '?: ?? ?'??''??': ??''?, ?? ''+?' ???? '?? ??''?, ?'? ????'?'??' ?'?? ????? ?' ?? ?+%? '??. '????, ? ?????, ?? ?' ???????'??': ??'?????. ?? ?:??' ?????'???, ??'??? ?????'?'?? ? ???'??': ''?'????: ???+???: ???'??? ??'????? ?'??? 'that' (''?') ? ???'?? 'Galileo said that the earth moves' (''''? ??', '? -?'? ??'??') ??'?'?? ??''??'? ??'???? *, ???'?? ? '?? ????'?'?? ?'???%??: The earth moves. Galileo said that' ('-?'? ??'??. '''? ??' ?'?') ?' '?? ?+???, ?' ?? ??? ?? ???'????'??': ???'???. -'? ??? ?? ?+ ???'???? ?+????? ?? ????'??? ??? ???+'?' ?' ?:?????? ???'??? ? ?'????'??-'?????'??': '???:, ? ?' ?? '??? ?-?? ?:???? ???'?? ????'??? ? ??:???' ???? ?'????'?

* '?????? ???'??' ??? '?' '?', '? ? ??'????? ?'? ?'??? 'that' ???'??'?? ?? ????? ?'??? ('Galileo said that the earth moves'), ?? ??''??? ??'???, ??????? ? ?????? ?'? ?? ''?', '?'' ('That book is red' ?' '? ??? ?????'), ' ??????? ?'? ? ?': ?'??: ???'???'?? ??' ?'??, ???'??? ?'? ???????? ?'? ?' '?????? ? ?'?'? ??'???.

''? 4. '?????? '??' 83

?? ?? '-?'? ??'??' ? '?+? ????? ?'??? ?'??'?? 9. ('?????? ? ?', ?? ?' ??', ?+????? ??''??'? ??'?????.) ????? ? '?? ?? ? ??'??? ?'?? ????' ??'?? ???'?: '?'? ? ?'????? ??'?' ? ???'?'?' '??? ???'. '???? ?'?', ?' ?????'' ??, ?' ?? +' :????? ? +'' ?? ?'?+??, ? ??'?'?? '??? ???', +? ??:????'?? '???????' ????'??' ?'??'''. ????? ?? ?? % ?????'' ?''? ?????'? ?+?%'??? ? ????+??? '?? ?'?'?? ? ??????: ''?  ???? ?' '?', ?'? ?'???'??' ???'???' ?'??? ?'??', '? ?' '??? ??' '?'? ????''???''??'? ?'?' ? ???? ?'?'??': ???+'? ? ''???' ?'?'. ''' ' ?'? ?? ????'? ??? ??'?? ??? ?'??? ? '??, '? ???'? '?????? ?' ?'? '?? '????????? ???'? ??? ????? ??'????? ??'? ? '??? ???', ??''?? ????????. ?? ???'?, '?????? ?'? ????' ? ??????': '': '?, '? ?? ????? ?+%' ? ???: ???????:, ?? ????? ? ?'??'??' ???: ?+%??; ?+?' ?????': ???'?????? ?? ??' ? ???', ??'???, ????, ? ?'?? ?'???? ?? '?+??''??. ?? ? '?, ?? ?' ??', ?'??'?'?? ??????.

? '??? ?+?'??? ? '??'?10. '?'??? ?'?? ?? '?????? +???'? +'' ?????%? ?'???' ? ??%?'???'? ???????? %' ???. '? ?+???'': '???, ??????:?? ? :?? ???%?'?'?? ?'??? ?'?': '???' (1973) '??'???'? ''???' ???' (1981), ?' ????????, ? ?''???? ???? ?' ????' ?+???? ? '?'??? ?': '?, ?? +?'????'? ?'??': ???+'? ''???' ?'?. ??? ????' '?? ?+???, '? ?' ?' :?'? ?????'?'?, ???, '??? ?? ??+?'???': '??', ?' ??'?' ????'? ?? ????, '? ?????' ?? ?'??? ?????? ???, '? ?????' '??' ? ???, '? ?????' ???? ? ??? '??', '? ? ?'? ?'?' '??' ?? ?? ?? ??'??' ????. ? ?'? ???????? ????%?'??? ? ????': ???':.

???? '???, ????' ????? '??????'?. ??'? '??' +???????????? ?'?'?' ???? ?'???'? ??? +?''????? ?+????'?? ? ???: ??????'??, ????? '?? ? ??+?'???': ??'???? ???' ?????''??'?, ???+?'? :??'?. ?? '?'??? '''? ??' ??'???'??? ? '???, '?+' ????'? '??'? ????'??? ??, '?' ?????? ????' ??????' ? ?? ?????', ????'??'?? ????????' '??????', ??'??' ? ?+ ???' '?'??'?'. ?? ??'??, '? ?'??????? ??:??'?? ????'? ??'??? '??' ???'???? '????????? '????, ? '? '?+' ?'? : ?+????. ?' ??????'?? ?? ???? ? ???: '??? ?????': ???': ?? ?'?': ?? ?????: ?'???''??? ?'?'????? ??' ''???' ?'? ?? ?'?'?.

?'???'? ?'?, ?? ?' ? ??', ???'?' ? ?+ ? ???'?? ???''' ???''??? ??'?'?? ?+?' ''?''?': ''???'??. ' ???'?''????', '?'?' ?'' ?'??'? ????'? ? ???'?????? ??'?-

84 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'?? ? '??, ????+?? '??? ?? ''??' +'' '?? ????'? ? XVIII ?. '??'' ? XIX ?. ' ?'??' ???' ?'??''? ? ??'??'????? +?'?? ?'??? ???? ? ?+:??'?? + '?: ????'?, ?? '???' ''???????'; ?':??' ??? ? '?'? ?:'?'??''. -' ??'? ??'?? ?'??? +'' ?'?'? ??%???, '? +?'????'?? ''???'?? ? ? ?'???' ?+? ?+??????? ???? ??' ? '?, '? ?'? ?'?' ??'%? ?'?????? '???? ?'? ''???'????? ??'?????, '??? '? , ?? : ?????'??-??-?????'' ???????? ?????'?', '? ??'? ???? ? ??????'?.

'??', ? ?'' ?' ????:, ?'??''? %%' ''????'??? ??????''. '??? ?' ? ?????, '? ????'?'?' ??+?? ?? ?'?, ?' ??' ?? ? ?+?' '?????? ????' (1973), ?' ? ????%?? ??'????? ?' ???'?? ?? + ??'????? ???'??? ?'? ?? ? ??%?'??' ??, ?? ': ??? ?? ????? ???? ??''????? +??' ???'?'?'. ?? ?????'???? ???' +' '??????'' ' '?'?'?' '?, ?? ?? ??' '?'?'. ???? ?????'? '?? ????

?? ???? ????, ??????' ?? ? ?+?' '??' ' ?''??? ''???'? +''? ??'?'??? ??'? ' ?? +''? '????' (1975). '?-???':, ? '??', ?? ? ????: ''???'?? ?? ???, ???'?% ???'??' ?'??'?'? ? ''???' ???????, ???????? ? '?? ??'?', ? ???? ?? ?' ??'? ? ?'?'???': ???:; ?? ????'?' ??????+???'? ''???' ??????'? ?+? ?? ??'?'??? ??'????, ???%?'?'??? '? ???'?'?'? ? ?+%????''? ?'??? ??'?????', ???'??% ??'?''??, '??'??' ??? ?????'?? ' ?'????'?? ? ???'?'?'? ? ?+%????''? ??'???', ????%?? ???? ?'????'??????? '???. -??'??'????? ???:?? ? ?' ?%?'?': ??'?''?? ? ???'? ?'?? '. ???, ??'?' '??', ??' ?? ??'?, ???? '?' ?????' ''???' ?? '?? ???.

?'???? ? ??'? ???' ?'? ?'???'? ???, ?+?' ???'?? ??'????' ????' ?????'?: ??' ???'??, ??????, '???, '??????, ???? '??' ?''?'?? ???? ?' ???? ? ????? ?'??, ? '???', ??' '??? ?????, ????'?'? ? '??, '? ''???'? ? ?????? ?' ?' ?'? ?????'?? ??????', ??' ? ??'???? ?????'?' ?'????? ??'???? ?????'???? ? ??'??? '?+?? '??? ??' ???'??? ???' ???? ??'? '??  ?+???, ??? ??'? ????' ??'? ? '?, '? ??? ?'?' '????'????' ?????, ?' ?'? ????'?'? ????'? ?+ ??????? ????: ??'?-??????: ''???'??, :?'?, ?? ? ?????? ???' '??', ????+?' ???' ? ? ??? ?? ? ???' ?? ?: ??? ????? ? ?????'?'??.

'??' ? ?' ? ???, '? ?'??' ''???'?? ??'?' ?????'??? '?'??? '??? ???. ?? ? ?? ?? ?'', '? ? ?????? ?' ?+ : ????'? ??'?' +???' ????' ??????? ??? ????? '?? ???. ?, ????? , ?? ?+??, '? ''?'??? ? ?' ?'? ?' ???

''? 4. '?????? '??' 85

?'???'? ?'?'?'. ???''? ?'???'? ?'?'? ???????, ?? ?'? ?'' ?????'', ''?? ?'?'? '????'????? ?+'?? ?????? ? ?+????? ??'?', ???? ???'?? '?, '? '??? ?'?'? ???''??' ? ??+??'??'? ???'???? ??????, ??'??' ? ????'?'???'', '??, ?????, ?? ?+?'. ??'? ?' ???'?? ??? ??'?' ? ??: ''???'??, '??' ???' ? '? ?'???' ?? ?'?'??': ?'???'??????: '?: ??-???':, '? ? '??, '? ''???'? ? ??' +''? ??'?'??? ??'?????, ?'???'? '???, ??'??? ?' ??'? ? ?'?'???': ???:; , ??-?'??':, '? ? '??, '? ''???'? ?'? ?' ?'? ? ?+%? '??? ???, ??'???? '???, ?? ?'? ???'??'?? ? ?????'?': ?'???': ??:.

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

???? '???? ??+:???? ???'? ??'?'???? '?? ???? ' ????? ???: ???'???''??': ?''?, ??'?'??': ''? ?'? '??? ????' (1975,1976), '??' '????'??' ?+% ??'???, ??'??'? ??'? ????''????'? ????+?? '???, ?'???? ? ?'???? +?''????': '?+???? ?'???''??? ?''?. -' '??? ??'? ????'? ????', ??'??' ? ????? ?? ?'??' ??%?? ? ?? ????? ?? ?+ ???'????? ?? ?'?, ?'? ?? ?????'?'?? ?? ? ???'? '?? ?+???, '? ?'? ???''??'??' ?+ ???'??? ?'?? ??? ???'? ? ????': ????:. (?????, ?' ????' ? ??'?' ????'?'? ?? ??, ??'??? ?' ? ? ???'??? +'' +' ?'?.) ????+?? ???????? ????? ?????, '??' ?:??' '???, '?, ???? ?' ?????'?? ???-'? ???, ?'? ??? ??'?? ?????'?'??? ? ?????? ?? ??????, ??'??' ?+?????'?? +'????? ??'?????; ?????, ?? ????% ????? ?? '??: ??????, ??'??? ?????'?'?? ? ??? ?????+???' ?'? ? ?'????. ?? ?'?', ?????, '? ?? ?'?? ?+????'?? ?'? ??:?'?????. ?' +' ??+?' ??? ?????'? ? ?'?, ??,

86 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?? ???? '??', ?????'?' +' ????? ?? '????'??: ??????, ? ?? ?? ?'?? ??: ??:?'????: ???'????.

??? ?+???, :????? '??? ??? +??' ?????'? ? '??, '? ?' ????'? '? ??'?? '????, ???? ?? ?' ?'?, '? '?, ?????, '? '-?? ?'? ???'?+'?' ??? +' ?:??'? ? ?'? '??? '?'??? ? '?? ?'?, ?' ?'? ?? ?' ?'? ?'? (???'? ' ????'? ?+???) ???'?+'?. ' ??'? '???' ?? +??' ?'? '??? ?'??, '?+?'????' +??' '??? ??'?'. '???'??'? : +??' '??? ?''. ' '?? ?'? +??' ??'??, '????? (', ?? ????? ??, ??'??'????), +??'? '???. '? ????: ?'?????: ?'? ??'?? ????'?? ???'? '??????, ???? , ? ????? ?'??, ????. ' ???'????'????'? '??'???', '??????' '??? ??'?? ? ????%?? ? '??, '? ?' ? ????? ????'??' ?:???' ????'?, ? ??'??': ?????'?'?? ?? ????: ????'?. ?? ?'????? '??', ?? ?''?' ????, ?'?????, ?? ??'??, ???'? '??? ?????, ???'??? ??'??'? ?? ???'??? ???'?' ? ?? ????????' ? ???'??? ????? ???'??. ?? ?'?' ?'? ????, ?' ??? ?'?, '? ???? ???'?? ??'?'?? ??????? ???????, ? ?? ??? ?+?: ?': ???'???. ('????'?, ?' ?????? ? ?????-'? ????? ? ?? ???'????? ???'???. ?? ?'?', ?? '???, ?? ???? ??' ???'??? ???' ??'????, ?' ????'????, '? ?'? ???'??'? ?????. ?? ? ?? ?' ??? ?? % ? ????'?.) ??'???'? ?+??? ?? ? '??, '? ?? ???'??? ?'? '???? ?' ??? ????'??': ?:???': '????'??: ?'???, '?'??? ? '?? ?'? ???+%' ?? ?? ?'??? ???'???, ?' ?' ? ????? ?' ?:???' ?'???. '?+' +''? '??'???', '??? ?'? ??'? ??'? ?+????? '???, '? ?' ????'? '?+? ?'??, ?? ?:????, '? ????????.

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

''? 4, '?????? '??' 87

'??' ???'? ??'?? ???'?, '? ?? ????? '?+??? ?'?'????? ???'??? '?+'?? ??' ? '?'??? ?' ?????? ?:???%: ? ?'? ???'?? ?'?? ????: ???'???, ??'??' ????' +''? ???'?'?' ?': ?'??, ?? ?' ?????? ????'????? ??' ?'?, ????? ??? ?''?????'. '??' ? '?, ?? ?'???' '? '??? ???, '? ?' ??'?' ????'? ??? ?'? ? '??, '?+' ? ??'??? ?? ????'? ???-'+? ?'?'??? ???'??. ?? ?? ????, ??'?'??? '??? ?'? ??'? +''? ? :?'?'????, ? ??'?': ???': '+? '?????? ('??? ?? ???? ? ?????? ?'?'??': ?'??), '+? ??'??'?????, ??????? ? ?????? ???'???, ? ? ???'?' '?. (???'???, '? ?? '? ? ???' ? ????''????? ????, ????  ?? ??'? +''?.)

'? ??'?? '+??'?'?' '??, '? +??'? '??? +??' ????'?'? '?+??? ??????%??, ??????? ?? ??? ?????-'? ?? ??+?'??????, ???'??? ?? ??'???, ??'??'? ??'? ????''????'? '?+?? ?+??', ????%? ?'? ??, ', ?? ????? ??, +??' ????'?'? ?? ?????+???'? ???'? ???''? ?? ? ?'? ??'? ? ??. ??, '?+' ????'? ?'??? ''?????', ?' ??'?' ??'? ' ???'? ?'?' ?????, ' ???'?, '? ?'? ??, ???? ?' ? ?? ?:?????. -'? ?'??? ?'''?? ?' ????'?? (??'???) '?? (??, ?????, ? ????), '?+??%? '??, '?+' ?? ???'?+'? ?? ? ??:??'??? ? ?? ???? ???'?+'???.

??'???? ?? ?'? ? ????? ????''?????, '??' ?? ?'???? ???: ?''? ?+?%'?? ? ?????+???? ?????'??? ?'????? ??? ??? ?'???. '?+' ????'? :?? ?? ?????? ?? ?'??? ???????, ?? ?'??' ??????'?, '? ? '? ????: '', ??? ? ???'? ??? ? ???'? ???'???? '???, ?? +'' ????? * ?? ''???' ?'?'? ? ???'??? ? ?'?? ??'? '' ????? '?? ?? ?'????'??? '???? ?'?'?. ???? ?????? ? ???, :?'? ? ???+'??????, +'' ?????%? ????? ??'?????? '?'???; ? ?????? ?' ?? ???+'???' ?+?'? '-'??'' ?'????' (1977), ??'??? ????'?'?' ??+?? ???? ? ?'?'??? ?'???? ?????? ? ?? ???'?????: '??:. '? ???+??? ?'????'? ?? ? ?'????, '? ?'?, ??-???':, ?'? ?' ???? ???????', ???'??? ??'????? ??? ?'?'??? ?'??'?? ??'?? +''? '+? ?'??'?, '+? '??'?, ? ?' ?' ? ?? ?' ? ? ???'??? ?'?, ?' ?'??? ??? ' '???, , ??-?'??':, ??'?????'? ?'????'?? ???' ? ?''??' ???? ?? ? ?'?????? ?'?'?, '? ? ?'?????? '??? ? ?'??: ??:???? ?'?'? ?? ???'???????? ??'?'????? ??'?????.

??'????'', ?? ???'?, ? ??'???' ??????'???'? ??? ?'???' ? ?'?'???' ?'?. '??'  ???%?'?'?' ?'?, :?'? ? ???'??????? ???'. ????? ?'' ?'? ??? ???'????. ?? ??' ? ??-

* ''???? ?? ?'????'?? ??????''? ???' ???'???? ? ??'???: ?????'':, ???'?'?'??' ???'? ? ??: ?????'':. ?' ???. ??.

88 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

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

???+'? ??''?? ? ??? ? '?, '?, ?? ?'???' ?'????'' ? ?'???? ?'?'?, ?'?? ??????? ????'?? ???'???, ?'? ??'??': ?' ? ????'?? ?''?'???? ???????? ??'???'?? : ?'????', ?' ????? ???'???, ? ??'??': ?' ?'????, '? ??' ?'????%?? ? ????'????? ???, ?????? ' ?' ? +???%?, ??'??%? ' ????'??, ??'?? ?+'?'? ???-'? ?????'?'? ?????'???, ' ???'???, ??'??' ?' ???'??? ?'? ?'??? ???'?'?'??: ??'???': ?'??'???, ' ???'???, ? ??'??': ?' ?'???? ?'? ? ????'???'????-??????? ?+'?', ? ???? ????'????? ?'? ??. ???'??? '??'?,

''? 4. '?????? '??' 89

?' ?'? ?''??? +?' ??????'??', ? ?+'?? ?''??. '??? ????? ?? ???' +?'??? ??: '' ?'?? ??' ????? ? +??' ???'??? ?????' 'X ??'?'?? ?????+?'? ? ??? ?'???', ???? ?'? ?????'?? ? '???, ??'??'? ? ???'?''????' ????? ? ?' ?' ? ???'???'? ?'??. (??. ? '??'? ???'?'? ?''????' '??.) ????, ? ???+': ?'??: ?'? ???????'? ??????? ??'???'? ?' ??'??? ?'????' ?'? ???'????? ???'??? ?'??? ?'??, ?????, '??? ???' ?? '??? ????', ???? '?, '? ?? ?'' ???'?'?'??? ??'???'? ?'??'??? (???, '?' +' ??? '??? ?'??' ? '??? ...'), ????%'?? ? '?'??? ??'???? ?'??'??. '??' ? '?, '??' ??'?' ? '??, '? ? ?+%? ?'? ? ????' ?'??'??'??? ??'???, ?? ??'??': '??? ?+????' ????? ?? ? ?'???? ?': ?'???? ???'???.

??? ???? ?'?'?, '??' '????'??' '???? ?', ??'??'? ?'?', '? ?' ???'?? ?'???, '??'?? +''? '?-'? '??, +'????? ?? ??? ?'???'. '???'??? ?+'????' ????' +''? '??????? ?'??'?', ?'??'? +'????? '???, '? ?' ???????'???? ???????? ?? ??% ??'?. ????? ???'??' ?'? ?'??' ???'??? ? ??'??'?? ???'???? ?+'????. ????? ????????'?? ???''? ????''? : ? ???+' ???'??? ?+'????, ????'?? ?+ ??%?'??, ?'? ??'????? ????'? +???% ?'?'?  ?+'???', ?? ??'??%. ' ?' ???? ????'?'? ????-'? ??'?' ? '??? ??%?'?, ?'???' '??', ?' ????'??? ? ??? ????'?'? ??'?' ? ????' ??%?'?, '???????'???? ????%?? ???'?'?'???? ?'????'?'.

???'???'? ?':??, ?'?' '??', ?'? ?'?'??? ?' '?? '?? ???, '? ???'?? ??'?? +''? ' ?'??'? ' '??'? ???????? ????? ?' ??%???? ? ?? ??? ?? ?'??'?'? ? ?? ????-'+? ???????' ??'???'? ?? ?'????'?, ?' '??? '?  ? ?'?'???? ?'???? +''? ?'+????? ????%? ? '??, '? ?'?'??? ?'??'?? ??'?? +''? ' ?'??'? ' '??'?, ? ?' ? ?? ?' ???????' ???'? ? ?? ?'????'?, ? '????'? ?? ?'???. ' ?'???? ???'??? ?'???'? ?'?'??? ?'??'?? ?' ?' ? ??'?'? ??????? ??'?'? ? ??%?'???? ?? ???''??'? ' ? ???????' ?? ???'????, ????? '???? ?'??'??? ???'?' ? '?????+???' ???'? ?? ???''??'??, ???? ??? ????'?'??'. ?' '??? ?+'?' ?????+???'?? ??''? ?? ?'?, ?? ??' +''? ??'??'? ????????'????'? ???? ?????+???'?.

?????'??? ?'?? '?? ???'' ?'?'? ('?? ?+???, ?? ?'? ?'''?? ?''? '??') ?????'?' ??? +?' ????? ????'? ???''??'? +?' ????? ????'? ??'?. '?' ???? ?'???'?, ?' ??' ?? ? '??'?' (1959), ?' '? ???'?? P ??'?? +''? '+? ?'??'?, '+? '??'?, '? ??'?? +''? ?'? '??, +'??-

90 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

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

'??', ?????, ??? ? ????''???? ????. ???'???% ??'?'?? ?'?'??' ?? ???'?'? ?????? ? '??, ? ??'?'?? ' ''??'??-???'? +?' ????'? ????'?, ?' ??'?????'?. -??? ???'?  ???%? ??'?'?? ??????: ?? ??' '??? ???'? ??? ????? ??? ?' ??? ? +?'??? '????'?? ??'???'?, ?'???' ??, '? ??????%? ??'?' ???-'? ?????'?? ???'??? ?', ? ????''?, '? '?-'? +''? ????? ?? '?'???' ' ''???'. ????'?? ????: '?' ????' ???'?' ? ???', ??? +??' ??????'. ?' ??, ?????' ??, '? '???, ???????%? ?' ?'??, ??'?' ???????'? '???, '? ????' ???'?' ? ??%?'??'. ?? ?' ? ??, +??' ' ?? ?''??'?' ?? ????? ?'?'?? ??'?, '? ????' ???'?' ???'?''??? ? ??%?'??', ?' '? ?'? ???? '????'? ?? ?????'????? ?'??'???, ?, ???, ?? +???'?'????'?. ?  ??? ?????'????'? ?' ??'? ? +?' ?+%? ?'? ?' ? ?'?, ???? '??? ?'' ?+? ???? ??'? ??'???? ?'??'?? ''??'?'; ?? ??' ?'? ?? ??? ?? ?'??? ??????, ?' ?? ?'. ?? '??' ???:??' ? '??, ??????%? '??'??-?????? ???'?? ???? ??'??: '?'???? ?' ?'? ????? ??? ?'?? ?? ? '?, '? ??+? ??????%?? ? +??' ????' ?. ???'???, '? ????''??'? ?'???, ? ??'????? ?? ? '?? ??:??', ?' ?'? '?, '? ''??-'????'??? '??? ???? '?? ''???', ?? ?????? ? '?'??'??, '?'?? ? ??'. ?+?, ???' ??, ?' ??  ? ??? ? ????%?? '??? '?? ???'?, ?? '???? ?'? ??'? ???' ???'?+'?? ???'????? ???'??? ??'? ?????? ? ??? ?'??? ?'?'????? ????'?'. ? ???

''? 4. '?????? '??' 91

?'? '?, '?' ? ????'?? '???'? ??????? ?'? ??'? ? ?? '???, '? ?'?, ? ??%???', ??'.

????, ?+?'??? ? ?'?'?? '??'12. ????' '?'?'?' ???? ?+??? ? ??'?'?? ???'?; ???? ?'?'? ?'???'?'??' ? '????'???, ???? ? ??'????''???, ???? ? ????'???. ????? ? ???? ?+?' ''?' (1963) '??' ???? ?'???' '? '??? ???, '? '????'? ??'?'?? ?'?'?'???, ? ?+?' '??? ???'? ??'?'' (1979) ?'??'? ?+??? ??'??' ??'????''?, ??'??, '? ??? ?'? ?????'? ??: ????????': ?+??? ????, ??'???, ??'??, ?'??: ??????. ?? ??', ???? ?'?'' ???' +' ?'? ? ???+???. ???? ? ????  ??'?' ?? ??'?'?? ?'?'?'???

' ????'?? ? ??? '??'? ???? ???' (1978) ?? ??' ?'???%: ''?? ??'?' ???? ???:?? ? ?'? ???+'?? ???'??' ? '??, '?+' ???'?, '? '??? ??? ?+??' ?????? ?''?. ?' ? ??? ????-'+? ??'? ? ??' ''???', '?, ????, ?? ???'?' ???? ? '??? ???'???? ?'??? ??????'. ?' ?? '?-'? ??'' ?' ? ???'??': ?'?????: ??? ? ?? ??:??' ????, ?' '? ?'? ???'?' '??? ?????+ ???''??'? ???'? ?'?, ??'??'? '??? ???? ? ?? ???'???? '???. ???'?, ?'???' ??, ??'?? ? ?'?? ??%???'?, ?'?? ???'???, +??? '? ???'??? ? '???? ?? ' ? ??''??': ??+''?:, ?'?'?? ???'???, ???'???, ?'????'?????' ? ??????? ' +???%? ????, '.?. ? ?????? ???'?' ? '??, ?+'??' ' '? ???'??? '?+??'??'? ?'????'?'? ??? ????? ?' ??%:?? ? ?? ????'? ??'???'? ?'?'. (?????, ?'?-'? ??? +' ?'?''?, '? ??? ?: ?+'??', ???? ?' ?'. ???? +''?, ???, ?'?'?'?? ? ?'???? ?'?'?, ?? ? ? ?'???? ???'??? ? ?'?'??': ?+??':.) ???'??? ?'?'?, ?' ???'??? ?+'??' '?? ?'????'?'? ???; ?'?'?'  ?'???', '? '???'??? ????'?????? ?'?? ??'?' +''? ????'' '?'??? ?? ??''??? ? '?, '? ?''?? ???'????%? ???'? ?'? ???'??? ?'??? ?'??'. '?' ????' ???? ???????', ?'?'?'?'?'. (?? '??' ?'??'?'?? ?? ??''??? ?+ ?'?? ?'.) -??? ?' ?????' ? '???, '? ? ?? ?????. ?? ??', '?? ???'?? '??', ?' '?' ?? ?'?'?. ?????, ?? ????'??' ?????'?' ???'??'???? ??????', ???+??? ? ?+?' '??? ???'? ??'?'', ????? ? ?? ?' ???????' ???'???'? ?? ? ?'? +?' ?''??? ?+????, ??????? '??, '? '??' ?'???? ? ??'?'?? +??'?'?? ?+???'? ?'?'?'??, ??? ?? ???? ????'?'??'.

'?', ?? ?? ????, ???' ?'???? '?? ??+?', ?????'??? ?'??'?'???'? ???? ????? ?'??? '????': ????????. ?? ? ???? ?'? ????? ???'???'?, ? '?-'? '??? ??'? ?''??% ????'?? ??????', ????? ?????? ? '??, '? ???' +' ?' ?'??'

92 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???? ?+??? ???'?+'?? ???????? ???? '? ????? ?'?' ????''??? ? ???'??? ? ????'??, ??'???? ?'?' ?'' ??, '? ????''. '??' +??'?'?? ?+?? '?'??? ? '??, '? ??, ?? ????? ??, ?', ?? ?'??' ??' ????+?' ????' ?' ?? ??% ?'???? ? '? ????????, ? ??'??': ???'??? ????'?? ?? ?'??' ' '??'.

????  '??? ?+'?? ?????'?'??, '? ?'? ?' ?'???? ? ??%?'????? ?+??'??? '??' ????'??' ?'?' ?????? ????''??? ? ''???' ?'?'?. ?? ?+%????'??? ????, '?''?-??'' ?'???', '? ??%?'??' ?+??'??? ?'?'??? ?'????'?, ???'??%? +?'??'?': ?+??'??, ??????': ? +?'??'?' ?'???'??', '??? ?? ?'????' ?'', '? ?'?'??? ?'????'? ?' ?'? ?'?, ?????? ??. '??' ? ?'?', '? '?' ?????? ?+?'?', ?? ??? ??+?? ??? ?+?: ?'? ?''???' ?'?'? ??'?'?? ?-'? ???? ?'????? ' ????', ?'? ?'????' ?' ?-'? ???? ??''? ? +??''? ???+???. ????? ?' ?+?', ?' ?''??', ????' ?? '??', ??' ???? ?'????? ????? ?'???''??? '???, ??'?' ' +''? ?'?'?? ???'??? ????'??? ?'??'? ' '??'?; ?? ? ?'?' ??'?'????? ??????? ?'? ?''???'??: ' ?'????'??: ???????. ?:???' ???+??? ?????' ?? ??? ????????'?? ?'? ?'?'?.

?? ??', ?'?'? ?' ?'? ?????'??? ???, ??????'???%? ????'??'? ???:?? ? ??????? ????? ?????': ????????, ??'??', ?? ??'?'??, ??' ?''??? +?'?? ?+%??, ? ?' ??' ?????'??. ??'?'? ?' ???? ?'??'?, ??'??? ?'?-'? ??'' ?'''??'?. ?????'??? ? ?'???'?? ???? ???????', ?'??? ?'??', '? ???'??' ??'?' '???' ?'??? ? ??'??'?? +?'?? ?????'?'? ?' ?????, ?'??'??? '?'? ? ?'???' ??????'?? '??? ?'???'?, '? '?'? '???'. ?? ?'?, ?'???' '??', ? ??'?'?? reductio ad absurdum. -'? +''? +' '???'?, ?' +' ?????'? '????' +?' ???? ?+'?', ?????'??? '???, ?? ???'?, ?' '?? '?+????'? ??%?'???%?? ???'??, ?' ??'???'? '. ??, ?? ? ?'? ?'?'?, ??' ??'??? ?+?'? ???'??'? ?':?? ?' ?'?????? '??? ?+'??? '????'???? ???'?, ?' ?' ?'??? ??'?'???? '??? ???. ?' ? ? ??? ?? ? ?+?%??? ? '?+'?????? ?'??' ?? ? ???'??? ??'?. ('??' ??????', '?, :?'? ?? ?'' ??'? '+??????? ''?''?'? '?????', ???' ? '? '?????'? ?? ?+?' ? ????: ?? ?????? +''? ???+?'?'.)

??' ???'? '' ?'?'??' ??+'?? ????? ?''? '??' ?? ?'?? ?' ????'?? ?? ?'???? ?''? ??? '?  ???? (Synthese, 1982). '??' ?????'' '???? ?????'??? ????? ?'????? '?: ???? ??? ?'??? ?'?'??? ??%'?? ?????? ?'???'

''? 4. '?????? '??' 93

?'?? ???'?? ????'?? ? '???, ????? ' ?' ? ?'???? ?'??? ?'?? ???'??? '??? ??? ?? ??? ??'??? ?'????' ???? ???????' ' ?'. ????? ? +?' ????? ?''? '??' ????'??? ??'+'?' ?'? ?'??? ????. ??, ?? ???', '? ?'?? '????''??? ??????' ????????'? ?'?'?, ??, ?????, '????'?, :?'? ?????'' ?''? '???? ????''??'?, ???? ' ???+% ?:??'???'? ?'??????? '????'?' ?? ??????%???? ?'?'?'???? ??'.

?'???? '????'?'', ??'??'? : '??'??? ????????' ? ???'???? ? ?'?'??': ?+??':', ?? % ????' ???? ???????' ? ?'???? ??'???': ???'?''??': ?'??'???, ? ??'??' ?? ??????' ????'??' ???'??? ? ?'?'??': ?+??':, '.. ? ?'???? ??'???': ?'??'??? '? '?' +' ?'?-?+??? ???????'?? ? ?'??? ????'?, ?? ?%?'' +' '?'?'. ?? ? '?  ???? ?? ? ????', ????+?? ?'?'?, ?'???'?, '? ?'? ?'??'?? ?'???, ?????'??? ????' +'' ?????. ???'??? ?? ????' ?????'??? '?? '?? ???, '? ????+?? ??'???? ?'??'?? ??'?? +''? '+? ?'??'?, '+? '??'?, ? ?? ?? ????: ?'??: ???????' '?'? ????-'+? ?'??'??'? ?'?' ? ??????, +'????? ?? ????+?? ?'??'?? ?'???'. ('??' ?'' ???'??? ?'???' ???????, ???'???' ?'? ?????, '??'??'? ? ?'?? ???'??'.) ?? ?'?' ?'??? '??', '????'?'?, '?+' +''? ???'???''??'?, ?'??' +''? ?'?'?'? ? '?? +?' ?'????? ??'?', ??'??'? ???' ?'??? '???? ??; ???? ???'???, ??'?' ??, ?' ?+'?? ?'? : '???'?.

?? +?'?? ? ?'??'?? ?'???'?, '? ?????, ?'? ????' ???? ???????', ?'??'?? ??'?'?? ?'?'??. ?? ?? ?? % ?+?? ? '??, '? ??????' ?'? ???'?? ???+'? '?? ???. ?? '? ?????'' ??'?'? ? '??, '? ???? ':, ???? ?', ????, ??'???' ?'?'? ?'?'?'? '?'??? ??'???, '? ?? ?'?' ???'??? ?+ ????'??': ?'??: ??%???'? ?????'??%??? ? ???'???: ? ???'???? ?????? ?'?? ??%???'?, ? ?'???' '??? '?''.

94 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???'' ''? 5

''? 5. ?'?-? ? '???'?-?

?+???? ???? ??? ?'?'? ?'?'?'? :??'??? ? '?'??? ?'? '??': ?'?' ???? ????? ?'????'?? ? ?'? ''???'??: +''?. ?? ??'?' ?'???? '???? ? ?+?' '?????+' ????? ????' (1978), '??? ?' ?' ???'???': ? ???? ??? ?'? ?'???? ????'????? ?'??'????? ?? ? ??????+?? ???'??': ? ? ???'???%:?? ???'?? ' ????, ?:???%:?? ? ????? ?????'. -'? ???, ?? ?? ?'???, +''? ?'? ??'??, ?????'?? '? ?.?.'?????, ?? +?????? ?''?'?? ???'?????'???'? ?'?'' ????? '?'?. ???? ??+?'????? ??? '???? ???'?' ?? '???'??'? ?'?'?? ?? ?'???: ??????:, ??'??'? ?' ???? ?'??'?? ?'? +'?? ??'??'. ??'?? '?'??? ??????', '? ???+?? ? ??'?' +??'?'??? ???+??', ?? ?'? ? ' ??????, ??'??' ?'??'?? ?'??? ' '?'?. '???? % ??? ''???', ???:%?%??? ????'?? ??????'???, ??'??' '?????' ??' ?? ??' ?'??''? ??+? ? ?'?? ''???'', ????? ???'???? ??'? ? ????? ?'+???': ? ?:???': ?' l.

'??', '? ? ?????'???? ??'???, '%''??? ?' '?'???'??? ??'??' (1951) '???? ?' ?+?'? ??'???'???? ?'????', ??????? ?? ?+?? ''??????? ???'???? ??' ????, :?'? ???:???'???? +?' ????? ????????? '?????? '?????''. ????+?? ???-??, '???? ?'''??'?? ?' ???'????? ????'? ?:???': ??, ?????': ?'??'??'? ?'?????? ?+?????': ?+%? ????'???. ????? ? ?'?? ????? ?? ?'''?? ???'??'? ? ????'??'? ??, ????-'? ??. ?? ?'?' ???? ?:????? '??? '?'?'????', ?????'??? ? ??'? '???? +?' '? '???'???' ??'?', ?? ?', ???, '?'??' ???, ????'' ???? '?? ??'???'???, ? ?????' ??? ??'', ?? ?'? ?'' ????. (?' ???? ?? ?''' '? '?, '? ?? ?'??' ???? ??'?? ? '????'?'????' '???, ? ???????%? ???: ??%???'? ???? ??????, ? ?'' ?' '?''???'????' '???, ? ??'??%? ??''? ? ?'??'.) ?? ?? ????'???, ? ? 1951 ?., ? +'' ?'?'?? ? ?+'??? ?????. ''? ??? ??????'? ??????: '?? ???'?' ' ???'?''??? ?? ???'???': ??'?, ????'?? ??'' ' '??: ?+??'???'

????+?? '??'?, :?'? ? ???????? ?'? ????'?'?? ? ?''??%: ?'??? ?'??'??:, '???? ??'?', '? ?'? ''???' ???? ??''? ???? ?''? ?????. ????? ?'? ??? ?'? ? ??', '? ? ?'??' ?'''??? ????????'????'? ? ????? ?:?????? ????'? ? ???'-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 95

%: ?????? ???':, ???? ??'? +''? ?+%? ?'???'?? ??. ???, ?? ?? ????, ???'?' ? ? ?'??. ? '???? ???'???' ??'? ? ??'??'?? ?''? ?+??'? ??????'?, ?????'?'??'? ?? ? :?? ???????'??????, ? ???'%?? ?????? ???'?? ??. ????, ?? ?'+???'? ? ?:???'? ????'. ?? ? ??'?? ????'? ? +?' ?????? ??? ???, ?'???? '????'? ???'???? ???????? ?'?????? '????, ? ???, ??'???? ??? ?????'?? ???-'? ???? ???'??? ??'???? ??'?, ??????? ? ????? ?:????? ?????, +??' ?'''??? ?' ????: '?? ?'??? +??' ???????? ? ??'?', ??????' ? ????: ?:???': ?????:. ???+??' ?:???' ?????', ?? ?? ????, ??'??'?? ????? ??????'? ?' :?'? ????'??? ?:???? ????? ??' +''? +?' ?????'''???? +'????? '???, '? ? ?? ??' +''? ???'??? +?' ???+??'?%? ??'?, ?' ??????' ? ?': ?????: ??'?' ???'? ????' ????'? ??????'?' ???'???.

' 1968 ?. '???? ???' ???? ??? ???? '?'? ?????'?'. -'? ?+?'??''??'?? ??? ?? ???? ????. '?-???':, ?'? ???? ??????'?? ???+'??%? ?'?? '???? ? ????'??? ??'??, '? ?''' ?? ?' ??', ??'????? ?'??? ???? ?'???'?? ?????, ?.?.'???, ???????? ??? ?? ????'??. '?-?'??':, ?'???'?? ????'?, '? '????, ? ?'' ?' ': ?? ??????????, ??'??' ? ????: ?'?????: +'? ?? ?? ??:?, ?'???'?? ? ?????'?? ??? ?????, ??? ? ??': ?? ??: '?????+' ?'??''?, ????? ?????? ??? ? ?+%? ?? ??'?+'?? ??????'. -'? ??%?'???? ?'?' ? '?, ???? ???'? '????' ' '???'??' ?? ??'?? ????'? ?? ????. ????, ?????, ???'?? ? '?????? ?'???''??? ???????' ???'???? '?'??'??': ???': '???, ??'??' ? ??'??'?? ??????'? ???? ? ???? ??'??' +'' +' '??????? ????'?'. ????? ???''? '???? ? ???'? ???? ?'??'?? ? ??? ?????? ??'?' ?' ? ?????? ? ? '??' ?+???' ' ? '??' +?'??'?': :??????? ?' '?????'', ?? ???? ????, '? +????'.

?''?? ?' ?????''??' ???, ?+?'??? '??? ? ?????? '???? ? ??'?? '???'????? ?'?'??'. ' ????-'? ??'?' ?? ??????' ?????'' '??' ???'? '????????? '?? ??+?'?. '???? ???' +', '? ??%?'???' ?'?', ????? ? ???'???%??, ????? ??????'?', '???''' ??. ??, ?????, '???'', ???'?? ?'?, ????' ? ?'?': ???': ????'? ?? ? '??, ???? ?? ? ?'?? ?'??. '?????, ?'? ????:??' ????'? ??'???, '? : ?'????' ' +?'?' ??' ?%. ' ?'?? ?'? ?' ??? ???'???'? : ?'?' ???'', ??????, ? ?????, ?'???%: '?? :?????, ??...' ' '?? ??'?', ??...' ?'  ?' ??? ???'? ???? ? '??? ?+?'??''??'??, '? ?? ???'' ??' ?+'?' ?'? ' ???'' ???? ?+'?'?, ?? ? ??? ????. ????? ???? ?' ?'??' ???'????? ????' ?????' ??. '?

96 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??': ???', ?? ?????'??, '????? ???'???' ???? ?????'. ' '??? ?'? ?' ?+'?? ?'? ?'???, '? '?' ' ?????? ???' ????'? ??+??. ???? ???'?? ????'? '  ?? ?+ ????'??' ?' ??' ?''???, '?  ???'?''??? ????:??' ? ?'. ????  ''???'', ??????% ? ?''??? +?' ?'????? ????? ?+?+%??, ??:???'?? ?? ????: ?'???''??? ?+%? ?'???'??' ??, ?' ?+'?? ???????? '??  ??, '.. ?'?, '? : '???''' ?'???'??????? ?? ??'??'?? ???'??'? ' ????'??'? ? ?????' ?''???, ?? ?? ? ???'?''????' ?'???'??????. '???? ?'???' ????? ????%?, ? ??'??? ???'?? ?' ??????, '.. ????%? ? '??, '? ???' ??'?'?? ???'??'?, ?' ?? ?' '???-'? :??'?.

?? ?'??', ????, ???'?, ?'' '????, '? :??'? '??' ??' ?' ???'????' ???? ?????. ?+? '' ? ??? ?????'? ????-'? ???', ????? ?? ? ????, ??'??'? ??? ? ????, ? ?+??, ? ???????''. ''?, '? ?' ??? ?'? ? ??, ?' ?????' ??, ?' ????'?? ? ???'??': ?? ???':'. ? ?? ?' ???????' ?'?' ??? ?????'???? '???'', ? '? '?+' ??'???'?, ????  '?? ? ???'?''????'' ?' '?, ?? ?'???' '??', ? ?? ?' ???????' ?'?' ??? ??: ?????'?': ????, ? '? '?+' ??'???'?, ????  ? ???'?''????' ''%? ? ????? ?%? ??+?'??'.

'???? ?'?' ?+? ???'??? ?'??'?'??. ?? ??????', '? ? ???'? ???; ?? ?'???' ?+? ??'??? ' ?????'??? ?+?????'?, ?'?'? :??'??'? ?'? 1970-: ?????. ? ????' ?? ': '?????': ????' ? ?'' '???, ????? ??'??': ????'????? ? ??'??'?, ?' ?? ? ??????, '???'?? ???? ?? ????????, ???+??? +'?? ??% ?' '???'??'. (???'?? ' ? '??-???'?.) '? ??????'??' ??' '????, ??'??? ':, '? ? ????''?????' ????'??'? ???????, ???? ?''? ???'?''??'? ?' ???? '? ?? : ???????' ? ???: +?' ???: ???????:. '? ?? ?'???', '? ?'? '?'?, ???'??? ??'????? '? ?' ?????:???'?? ?? ????? ???'? ?? ? ?+? ??'?', '? '? '?+?? ?????? '???' ??'? +''? '+? ??????'? ? ??, '+? +???'?'??'?'; ?'??, ?????' ??, ???' ?????????' ????'+'? ' '??? ? '?.

??  '??, +??? '? :?????, ??' ' ''???'', ?'???' ??'? ?' ? ??? ????'? ??' ???; ????, ?' ???''??, ? ???? ???? ?' ???''?? ??, ??'??'? ?'' ?'? ?? ???'?'?. ?' ?????? ?'?, ?????' '????, ??'? ?'???, ??'??, ????'???, ?????, ?'?'???? ? ????? ??????. ?? '? ?'?' ?? ??????? ? ???? ?'??' ?????'?, '? ?? ???'? ?? ??'?? ???????? ??'??, ?? ?' ?+'?? ?'??, ??'?'?? ?'?. ?? ?'?? +?'?? '??'??'? ?? '???'?'?'? ?'????''. ????, '???' ?''?? ?'??'? '???, ???? ?? ? ????'?' ???: '???': ?+???

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 97

? ????' ???: ??+?'???': ???''. ? ''???'? ?+????' ????' ? ???'? ????' ???? ?'???'??? '??'????' ?'??? ? ???? ????? '???, ???''?' ?'??? '??%: ?+'???? ???? ?+??? ?????????, ????????? ? ???? ?'???? ??????''. ???' ????' ??'??? '?'+?? ??? '?'??'??'? ??'?? ?'?', ???? ???????? ?'? ???'???? ?'?????'. ?' ??? ?+???? ???'? ? ??'?'?? '? '???, ? ??'?????'.

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

?? ? ?? ??''?? ??????: '' ? ???'?' ???'????'??' ??? ???? '?'???? ???????' ?????'?? ???'??'? ?'?'?? '????? ?'???? ? ????'? ????'? ?'?' '???? ? ?'?' ??????. ??:?, ?? ? +?'??? ?????'??'?? ?????????' ???? ?'?'?? ' ?+???', ? ???? ??'?' ? ??'? +?'??'?? ?????'?? ????' ?''??? '???'?', ?' ?+?????', ???? ?? ?'??' ? ??'?????'?? ????'? ??????, ? ????''? +???? ????' ??? '?'??. '???'????'? ???????' ?'???'?? ?'?'??'? ????'? '????. ??'??, ?? ?' ? ? '???????' ? ????? ??%?'???%?? ???. ?' ?' :?'? ?'?, '???'?? ' ?????? ??'?' ' ???'??? ' ???? ?' ???'??', ?', ?????' ??, '??????? ????????', ?? ???? ? ???: ???'???? ??'?', +? '???'??? ?????? ? ?? '?'? ??' ??'??? ????'???? ? ?? ??'. ''? ?'+?? ??? ??'?? ??%?'??' ????'?? ??'??. ?? ??'??' ?????'???'? ?' ??'??? ???' ?'?? ?????? ???, ???? '?' '?', '? ?'??? ? ????? ?????'??? ??'? ??' +''? '??'? ? ??????, +?'?? ? ????'?? ?? ????''??, ?' ????'???? ???'????'?, ????'???? ???'????'?, '??'???'??-???'?', ????'?'?, ?+'?'? ???'??, ?'???? ?????????+???'?. ???? ' ? ????%?? ?': ??'?? ????'? ???'?? ???'????? ?'?-

98 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'?? ? ???'? ?' ? ?'?? ???'?' ?'??'? ?????'? ??????.

??'??, ? ?'??' ??'?'?, '? ? 1970- ???' ?'? ? ?' ?'????????. ' ??? '?+??'??? ??' (1972) ??' ?????, ?'??? '???? ?''??, '?'? ? ?? '?+??'??'? ??:??', '?'??? ???, ?????' ????'????? ??? ?'? ?? ?? ?????? ?'??? 2. ?? ?'?'?' '? ??, ? ??'?? ? ? ?'?? '??', ? ? '???? : ??'?'?. ???'? ?? ????' '?? ?+??'' ???'????; ''???? ?? ?' ??''??' ?+??'' ???'????; ??'?  ?? ??'?' ? ?+? '?+??'??? ????? ?'?', ? ?'???' ????? ???'????, ??????? ?????'?'.

' ?'???? ??: '?: ???? ????? ??'?'?? ?'?'??. ????? ???? ?'???? '? ?? ??' ? %' ?'???????' ??'??? ??, ? ???+????' ???'? '?? '?? ???, '? ??: +' ????''???'?? ?'?' ??, ?? ?? ????, ? ???'??' ?' ???+'??': ' ?'??, ??'??: ?????'??, ?????? ???'?? ??? ', ?? ?'?? ? '??? ??''??'? ???'?????, '???'???? ??????', ?? ' ????'' ?? ''????? ???, ' ??'?'?? ?? ?'???. ????? ?'' ??'? ?? ?'?'???'? ??????'??, ????+?'? ?' ???. ?? +?' ??? ?'? ? '??, '? ???'?? '????, ? '?  ???? ??'?' ?+?'?? ???'? ? ????? '?? ?+??''. '??' ? '? ?? ???'?? ?'?????? ? :?? ???????, ??? ??????%: ?'?'???'? ?'+??.

' ??'? ???? ?? +?' ?'??'??'? ??? ?'. ?? ???', '? ???? ?'?' ??? ?'. ?? +??? ????' ?????'?, ?? ?'?' ??? ?? ???+'?'. -'?, ? ???? ????, ?'?'?' ?? ???????'? (?? ''???? ??) ??'? ?'? : ????. ?? ???? ??+?'??' ???' ?+??'' ? ??'? ?? ?' ???' ??%???', ???' ?????'???, ?'??' ???', ????????'???', ???+'?'. '??'? '?'? ?? ??'?'?? '????? ??????'??, ?' ??' ?????, ?' ???? '??, ?????'' ???+'??' ?'? ??%?'???' ?? ?? ?+, ?? ????? ? +'' ????' ' ?????' , ??????, ?? ????? ? +???' ????' ' ?????' '????'.

''?? ????? ?'? ????? ??'?'?? ??+??'??. ?? ??, ??'?' ??, ? ?? ???; ?? ?'''?? ??'? ?? '?? ????'???' ???'???? ?:?? ? ????%?? ???^? +???+??'??? ???'??'??, ?'? ??'???? ?' ?? '?, '? ?:??'?? ??? ?????, ? '?, '? ??? ?:??'?? ??? ?????. ????? ?'?? ?'???'?, '? ?? ??-?''???'???? ????????' ?+??'?? ??'??? ?????'? ??'? ??+??'???. ?'???'?? ??? ???? ????' : ?'%, : ???' ?'% '? +?'. ????? ??' ?'?? ???? ??'??? ????, ???? ?? ? '??, '? ?'+?? +??': ???'??? '?+'????' ????'?'?? ??????, '? ?? ?+'???? ????'??'?? '???. '???? ?????? ?????, ?' ?? ???, ??????? ? ????? ''???'??? '???, ?????+?'???' ????? ?'?'?'??:, ?'???? ? ?'?'??: ''???'??: ?????, ????'?? ??+??'??, ? ????? ?? ??

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 99

??:. ' ????: ?'??: ??? ???+?' %'?? ?'? ???' ? ?????? ???. ??'''?'?'??? +???'? ?'? ?'??? ???+??? ???''?? ? ?'?? ?'????, :?'? ?'?-'? ??' +', '? ??'? ? '''???' ?'???' ?? ???? '? ?'''??? ????'? ?'? ?'+?'????? ?'??.

?'??? ???+?' ???'? ???????? ??'?? ???????': ''???'??: ?+'?? ?? '???, ?? ?'?' ? ??' ?? '?? ?? '?'???'??: ?+?'' (1975). ????  ?? ?'?', ?''? ????'?, '? ?? ?''? ???'??% ??'??'? '' +'' ? '?'??? ?'??''??'? '??, ?? ???'?' ????? ??+?? '?????, ?????%??': ???? ??????'? '?? ?' ?'?? ????'?????' ???': '???, ?'??'? ?? ?'???? +''? ????? ??'+'? ?''. ????'?? ??' ? ?'??? ?? ?? ??:?? ? ?????? ???.

??? ? ''???' ?'?'?. ' ?''? ''? ?'? ?'?'??? ?'??' ?'??? ???????'?? ? ???? ??'? '?'??, ?'????, '? ?'?'?? ??????? ??' ?''??? +?'?? ?:???'?? ? ???????? ? ??????: ???:, ?' ?'? ?+'?? ??????'?? ''???'???? '???, '? ? ?'?'? ???'? ????' +''? ???'?'? ???????? ?????''. ??, ????? , ? ?'???', '? ?'?'? ?'? ??????? ??? ' '? ?'? ?'?'? ? ??? ???''??'??. ?? ?? ?'?'?? ??'+'? ?'? '??????? ?''' 3.

?? '? ?'???', '? ?'?'?? ???'??? ??????' ?????'??. ? ?? ?'? ??? ????' ??????? ?''?, '? ?'?'? ? ??%?'???': ???: ???': ???'??. ???: '?'??'??': ???' ? ?????'??. ?? ? ??, ?????' ??, ?'?? ??'?'? ???????'? '???, '? ???'??' ?'?'?? ?'????? ??'??'?? '??'?. '?????, ???' ?'??''? ?'??' ?? ?'?'??? ? ?' '?????''??': '????: ??????, ??'??' ?+'?? ?'?'?? ?? ???? ???????'? ?????'??. ??, ???'??? ?'????, '???'??'? ???' ???'???? ?:?? ??' ?''? ????? ?'? ???? ?'? ?' ??????? '???. ?'???'?, ?'?' ?? ? ??????, ?? ?: ??? ? ??'??? ????'? ???'??'?? ????????? ??'????? ???'? ?' '?+?' ????? ??+''? ? ?'?? ??? ?'? ???'??'????'. ?? ? :?'?' ???'?, '? ??? ??' ?'? ?' ?'?', ??'??? ??? ?''?? '??+:?????' ???'??? ??'???? '??? ????'???'?? ??'?'?? ??'???'?; ?''? +''?, ?'? ? ????'? ?'??'' '???, '? ???? ?'??'? '?'??'??' ???'?, ?'''????? ?' ?'?': ????. '?+%????'? ?+?????, ?' ??' ??, ?' ????'? ????'.

-'? '? ??'?? ?????????' ?????'??. ? ?? +''? ? ?'??? ? ?'?'?? ?'??? ????? ?'?'?' ?'? ???'? ????'?, ???????'? ?'????. ? '?, ? '???, ?'???' ??, ? ????' ?+??'?? + ????'?. '??' ? '? ?? ? ???'? ??'??' '?'-'???'???' ???:??. ????, ???'?' ??, ?'? '?'??'??? ?+???-

100 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?? ?'?'??? '?'? ? ???'??': '???:, ????'??? ????'?? ?? '???'?????? ???????'? ?'+??', ?? ????'?'? ? ??' ? ?'?? ?'???. ?? ?? ????, ?'???? '??%?'??' ????'?? '': ?', ????''?????%: ???'????? ?'?'????? ??'???' ??''??? ?'''?? ?' ?'????? '?'? ???????'? ?'?+?'? '' ?', ????''?????% ?'??? ??'???'. ??'? ?? ? ?'??'?? ???'? ?????, ???'????, ''???'? ?'?'?, ? '???? ??? '?'??'??': ?????: ?? ??' ?????+ ???'? ?? ?????? ?'???''??? ?'????' ????'?.

' ???? ''???' ??? ?'??? '? ??'?' ?? ? ?'?, '? ? ?????????' ?????'??. ????? ? ?'???? ?????????' ?????'?? ?? ????' ???? ???? ????????: ?' ? ??'?', ?'???' ?? ? '?'???' '?' (1965), ?????+'?'? '? ???'???, ?? '????'???'?? '?:????', ?+'?'? ??????? ?+?+%???. ??' ???'??? ?'', '? ????+?' ???'??? ????'' ? ???+?? ?'???, :?'? ??+'??, ?'???? : ? '???, '? ? ??????? ?????'??. '?? ??', ???? +''? +' ??'?, ?' ??????' '?? ?'???, ?' ?' +' ?'? ? ??'? ?? '????'?+'? ??'?????, '? ? '? ?'? ??+:???' ?'?', ?? ?? ????' ????'??'??? ?? ??+:?????'!' ?? ?'? ???'??' '?'???'???' ????'' ????' ????'??'???, ?? : ?????'? ?' ?'? '???????? ????? ?'?, ?' ?????'? ?+'?': ??????: ?+?+%??'. ('??'????, ???? ?????'?? ?:????? '?? ???.)

???? ???'???': ?'????? ?+??????? ?'? ?????'?'?? ? ?'?? ?'?. ??%?'???? ?'?'??': ?+??'??, ?? ?? ????, ?'??, ?'???? ??????, ??'? ''???', ?? ??? ?'? ? ???, '? ???'??'? ??'? ?'????' ?? ???'?, '? ??????' ?'??? ??'?, ? '?? ????' ?? ':????? ???'??????? '??? ?'?'??': ?+??'??'. ????'?, ? ??? ?'?' ??? ??+?? ????%???, ?? ????-'? ?'' '?:?????'? ????'???'?. ???'??? ?? ?'? '??+:???? ?'?' ? '?? ???'????? ??'?', ? ???? ??%?'???' ??+:???' ?'?'.

'?' '%''??? ?? ?'??'?? ?+?????'?, '? ??%?'???' ? '?'??? ?'?'???', ?? '?? ??'? '?? ?'?'. -'? ??????' ?? ? ??'? ?? '?? ?:?+:, '? ?????' '???+??. '??' ? '? ?' ''???'' ??? ??? ??' ?'? ???. ?? ?' ? ?'?' ??, ?:?-+: '???+?? ? ??? ???? +'' ???'???'? ''???'?, ??'??' ?????'?? ? ?????'?? ?'????: ???+'? ????, ????'???'? ??????', ?? ?' ???+'?' ?'??'?? ? '?? ?'???''????' ???'???? ?:?? 4. ?? +?'??? ?' ?+?'' ?'??? ? ''???' ??? ????' '???  ?+%? :??'?; ?' ? '???' ?? ?? '?'???' '?' ? '??, '? '''???'? '? ??'?'?? ?????'?? ???? '?', ? ??'?'?? ?''??? ? '??, ?? ?+?'?' '?. ?? ?''?, ?? ''?'?? ''???' ? ???'???? ?:???' (1965), ???? ''??'????', '? ?? ?' ? ???. ?? ?? ????, ?'?'?, ??? ''???-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 101

'? ?????????' ???? ? ????. (' ???? ???' ''???' ?+'?????? ?'? '? '?'? ??????? ??????' ?'?' '??? ? ??????. ?????? ?'.)

????? ?' ? +??? ????'??'? ?'???'? ?'????? ???'???? ?:??, , ????, ??????? '???, '? ?? ?????' ?+ ?+%? '?? ??'?????. -??? ?' ????? ?+?????, '? ?? ?' ????? ? ?''? '? '?? ? ??'??'??' (1962) ?' ????' ?'? '?? ?+??? '???'' ??'?' ''???'?? ???+'?'. ??, ?? ?'???' ??? ?'? ???? ???'?????'?'? ''??'??:' '????? '????? '?+'????', ???' ? ?? ???+'?? ??????. ?' ?? ?'???' ??, ?? ????? ??, ? '?? ?'?, ?' ??? ''??'??? '?????' ? ?????' ????'? '??? '????? '??'. ? ????+?' '???', ?????' ??, ????' ?+??'? ?'? ?+'????, ??, ?????, '?'''''. ?' ??????? ? '??'??? '???? '??? '??  ?+???, ?? ? ????? '????; ?? ???? ?'???, ? ?: ?' ??? ???+?????, ???, '? ??'?? ?''?'? ? ?? '??????, ?' '?'??? ?' ???-'? ?+??? ? ??????' : ? '?+'??????'. ? '?, ?? ?'?, ?? ???????? ????'?', ???? ?+??? ? ?'?????' ?+???' ?+??'', ??%?'???? ??'??':, ?? ???'?, :????? ?+???????. ?? ??', ?' ????? ???????' ?????' ?' ??? ???'???? ?+'???? '??'??? ???'???? 5.

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

?'??? ???' ?'??, ????? ? ?'?? ?????? ????? ???? ??? '?'???'?? ???': ???'??' (1962), +'????? ??'???? ????' '?????', ??? ???'??????? '?'??? ? ????'?, ?'???? ??, ??????'??'??? ?? ???? ?'''?'?'????? '???''? 6. ' ???'???? ???-???, ??? ?????'?? '?? '?? ???, '? ? ?'? '????'???? ???' ??' ?????%?' ??? ???? ? '???, '?+' ?? ???? ?'?? ??????'? ???'', '???, '?+' ??'? '??'???'???'. ''?' ?? ?'?, ?? ??? ??+?? ? ??'? ?+? ????, ? ??'??'? ?? ??'?? ?'? ?'? ? :?? ???? ????? ?????'???, '? ????'?? ???+?'????

102 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'??? ?'???? ??????'? ????'??. -'? ????? ???'?'?? ???'? ???'???, ? '?'??? '? ?''?'?'? ???'??? (??, ?????, ???? -???'???? '?? ?'???''????'), ??'??'? ????' ?'?'? ??? ?? ?????, ?? ?'???''??? ?'?? ???'???, '????%? ???? '?? ?+?'??? ???? ???+%?'??. ' ???? ??? ???'??? ?????' ? ?'??'?? ??? ?????. ??''?-???? ?? ?'???', '? ?'? ???? ? ?'???? ?''??: ?????'???; ???  ?' ? ??? ?????'??? +?' ?''?????', ??% ?'???? ???? ? ???'?, ? ? '??.

?? ?'?', ?'??? ? ??? ?? ??? ???'?'??? ? ?????. ?? ??', ? ??? +'' ???????'' ????'?''?? ????: ???????': ????????'? ?'?'?, ?'? ?'??? ?????+?'???' ?' ????'?? ? ????? ???? ?' ?? '? ?+ '??'?'?????? ?'???''????'' ???? '?????'????' ?????'. ?'??? ?+???' ??? ? '??, '? '?' ? ?????? ?'?' ??? ?????'?? '??'????, ??'??' ??'??'?? ?'?'??'??? , ? ... [??] '?? ???, ????'??'?'. ???? ?????' ? ??? ? '?: ''???': ???, ?? ?????? ?????? ???' ??'-?, '? ?? ??' ??'?????'? '???????'? ??'? ???': ??'???'? ??'?'???'? ?'?'??' 7.

' ???'????'?? 1969 ?. ? '?'???'?? ???': ???'??' ? ????'?? ? '??%?'?????? ???''?'?' (1977) ??? ??'???'?? ?' ???'??': ???: ???'?????? ?'?' ? ?+??? ? ?'?'??, ?'????'? ???'? ??? ?'????? ??????. ?? ?'' ???? ? ???+?? :??'? (differentness) ???. ??'? ?? ???' ?:???'?? ? ?'???? ???'????: ??'????? ???': ??''?'??, ?? ??'??' ': ???'???? ???, ??'??', '?????? ? ... [??] '???' ???? ?'???'??? ?'?? ?+? '?????'', ?'????', ????? '??? ??????'???', ?? ?? ? '??, '? ??' ?+'??' ???? ??????????'?? ?+%: ????'?. ?? ?'?' '????? ?? ?????? ???''?? ?+?+%'? ?? ? ??'? ?????? : ? '???? ??'?'????? ??''????', ? ??'??': ?'? ? ???'?'?'??' ?'??????? ?????? ?+?????, ?????'?'??%?? ??': ? ?+?' ? '????'???? ???'.

?? ? ?? ?? ?? % ?+?? ?' ??? ? ?? ? ???'?? ?'???, ?' '? ??? ?????' ?'' ??+?? ??? ??? ': ???': '?????, ??'??' ??:????'?? ?? ????? ?????. ?????' ????? ?'??? ?????, ?? ?? ????, ???' ?? ??-?????, ? ???? ?????'?' ???'?+'?'? ??? '  ?'??. ?'???''???, '?? ??'?' ?'?? ???'???'? ??-?????', ???????? '??????': '?? ???'. ?? '?'??? ?? ?????' ???? ????'???'? ? ??'? ?'???'? ???+%?'??, ?? ????' ???'''??? ???%?'?'? ????? ? ?'? ?'??? ?????' ? ?'? ?????. ?????, ???? ????, ? ???? ' ?'? ???'?? ??''?, '?'??? ?' ?? ? ?????' ? ????? ??????, ?'? ??'???? ?'?' ?'? ?: '???-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 103

?'?'. ?'?'? ??'? ?'? ??''? '????, ?'? ?+?????', ???? ?? ? '? ???+???? ?'??' ???'? ?'???, ? ???? ???' ?????'? ? ???; ?? ?????'?' ?????'? ? ?? '?? ???'??''.

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

???? '???, ??? ?'? ?' '???, '?+' ?'?'? ??????? ? ???. ?? ? ?'???', ?? ?'? ?'' ?'?'??', '? ???? ???? ?'?'?  :?????, ?? '?+? ?????. ????? ?'? ??? ??????? ???'?' ? ??'?%? ?????+???' ??'? ???+'?', ?, ?? ?'? ?+'?? ?????'?'??, ? '???'? '???? ????'?'?? ? '??, '? ?'? ????? ? ???? ?''. -??? ?'?'? ????.

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

' :?? ?????'??? ?'??? ?????? ?'??? ??+''?' ? ?+?' '??''??? ??''???' (1962) ????? ?? '??? '?'?'???': ????'. (''????? ???? '???'??????' ?????+???' ???'? '?? ???, ?'??? ??? ???+? ?'? ??: '?. ?? ?' ?? ?'??? ?'???? ''???' ? ?+%: ?':.) ????' ?'?? ???, ?'???' ?? ? '?? ?''?, ?' ?'? '?'?'???' ??'' ? '?? ??'?', '? ?? ??'??'?? '????'??, ?+?????'? ????? ?????'. '-????', ?????, '?????' ? +?'?-

104 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??? ??'?'? ??': ?????, ?'??'??? ??' ??'; ???? ?' ????+??' ???' ??' ?? ?'??? ?'??'??, ? ??'? ? ???'???? ???'????? ???, ????'??' ?? ?'??? '???. ' ??'?'', ?'?' ??, '?+?? '??? ??? ??' +''? ?'+????, ?'? ? ???'?' ? ''???'?????'? ?+???????? ?'? ????? ????'?'. (' ?'?? ????' ?'??? ?'?? ''???'??.) -??'????' '??? ??''?? '?  ??'?: ''?' ???? : ???'? '???', ??? +'' ????, ???? ? ?: ?????' '? ?? -???'??', :?'? ??? = l/2mv2 +'' ??? ? +?' ?'??'? ???. ???'??? +''? +' ??????'? ?'???'?, '? '?+?? ??? ?'???''??? ???? ??'?'?? ?''???. ???'??? ? :?'??'??: ?:???'?? ? ???????? ??? ??'??. ?' ? ?????? ??? ?? ''? :?'??'?? ?'? ...', ??'??'? +' ? ??????' ??'???, ???? ''? :?'??'?? (?'?) ? ?'''. ???'??? ??? ? ??' ?????', ?' ?' ??? ???? ?''? ?? ????? (?'? ? ??'?+?', '?+' ?' ?? ??' ? ?''?'? ???': ?'??''?). ? ? '?? ??? ?'? ??'?? ?'? ????'??? ?'? ??????'?'??': ?'?? ?'? ?+'??? ???????. ??? ?+??? ?'??? ???' ????'? ?'? ??? ??''??? ?''???, :?'? ? ?'???' ?? ??'???'??.

???? '??? '?'?'???': ????' ?'??? ??+''?' ? ?''? ''???? ' ???'??' (1970). ???'??? '??????? '?? ???, ?????' ??, +''? '????? ?' ?+'?'? ???'??'? ??????%? :??'??'??, ??'??' ???' ?+???' '?'????'' ?'?? ''???' ?' ????? +''? '''?, ??''? ? ???? ?' ??'??' ????'??', '? ?' ?'? '?????, '? ?:??' ? ?? '???'????''. ?? ???+'? ???'?' ? '??, '? ? ?? '???' ??' ?' :??'??'?; ??%?'???' ??'???'?' '???'. (? ?' +''? '?+'??? ?'?? '? ????'??'? ????'? ??'????'; ???  ??'??? '??'??'?? ?? ???? ??'.) ??? +?'??, '? ???? ?'???'?, '? ?'? '?, '? ??%?'??' '?'??'? '???', '?+???'?' '???, ??'??'? ?' ?'????????'' :??'??'? ? ??'??'? ?? '???' ??'?? ????'. ?? ??  ? '??? ?'? ??'?'? ?'?'???' '???', ??'??' ????'??? ??:? ? '???' ?? ????: ?': ???'??? ''? ?'???, ?'?' ?'???, ??'?+?'?? ???? ??'????, ? '?' ???'. ' ?'? ?'?'?????? '???, ?'?'????, ?'? ??'???? +??' ??? ????''?.

' ?+?' '?+????? ?'???' (1973) ?'??? ??'??' ???? +?' ????? ?''?? (:?'? ?????'' ?????'??? ???: ???: ?????'??) ? '?'??? '?'?:?? ?????' ?' ? ?'?' ????''?? ????: ?? ?''? ??'?' ???? ??'?, ?' ?? '?, '? ? ?? ? ?'?? '???? ?+?????? '??'???, ?? ??'??': '???, ???'?+'??%? ???'??? ?'??? (??? ''????' ' '??'), ??'''?? ? ???? ?': ????'? ?%?, ? ? ?????', ? ?' ?'?' '??? ? ??? +' ?'? ?+? ?'''? '???? ?' ??'+??, ' ?? ?' +??, ' '??? ?' '??.

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 105

-??? ?? ?+?%'?? ? '?'?'???? ?'??. '????'?, ??%?'??' ?'?' ??? ???? ''????? -?'', ??' ?? ??: ?'?????: ????+?? ??? ?'?' ?' '-?' ???? ???', ?+''' ? ??????' ??-??'???. ????? ?'? ???? ?' ?' ? -?' ???? '? ??? ????'?'?' ??+?? ? ?2?, ?' ???????? ????? :???? ?'??? XYZ. ?? ?'?? ?? ?????, ??? ???? ?? '??? '?? , ?? ?? ???. ?' +' ??%? :?? ?+'''? '????? -?' ???'' -?'? ???? ???, ??' ??, ????????, ??' +', '? ?'?? '???' ??' ???? '?  ?? ? ?+: ?'?':. ?? ? ?????? ?' ?? ?+?'?? +' ? '??, '? ??+'??, ???'' +' '?? ???+%?: '? -?' ???? ??? ??? ??' ?2?, ? XYZ'. ???? ????'?? ?+, '? ?'?' ?? ?' ???'?? ? 1750 ?., '.. ? ????, ???? % +'' ???'?' ???'?'?'???% :??? '????''. ' ?'?? ?'? ?? ? ???? +' ??'???'? ?' ??? ??? : ?????. '''? +' ? ?? ?'????' ??+??? ? '??? ?'? ???''? ???+%?, '? ??? ? ?+: ?'?': ??' ???? '?? ?? ?'?', ?'??? ?'?' '?'.

??'?'?', ??'??, ?' +', '? ???'''? ?' '?? ???????' ???''? '? ???+%?, ??'??? ?? ???'', '? '?'?' ?????? '?? '????????? ?'?????'?' ?' ' ?????'????? ? ?? ????'?. ?? ?? ????, ????-'? +''? ?'??'?, '? ??? ?' ???? '?  ?? ? ?+: ?'?':; +?'?? ?'? ? ??'?'?? ?'??'?. ?', ?' ??'? '?  ??? ????? ?'???, ?'??? '???'' ('?, ?'???''??? ?? '??? '???' '?'??') ????-'? ??'?' ? ?+? ?? ' ????', ??'??' ?' ????'??'? ????, ????? '.?., ?? '??? ??'?' '?'??? ????', ??% ? ???? ???'? ????'??' ??'??''. ?? ?'?' ?'?', ?? ???? '???, ??'???'?? ???'???' ?? ??? ?????????? ???'?, '? ???'? ??':, +? ?+ ?' ???'? ???' ?' ????'? ???' ???. ?' ?+'?? ?'?, '? ?????? ??' ??' +?'?? ? ?'?', ? ?' ??:??, +'' +' ??'??' ????'? ?''??% ?'??? ?'??'?, '? ??:?? ??+??? ?'' ???'??' ?% ?'?'??, ? ??'??': ?????? ??'??, '? ?? ? ??'??'?? ?'?'??. ?'???'?? ' '?-'? ? '???  ????? ?'?'?????? ???, ?? '?-'? ?????, ?' ?'? ??'???'?? ?'??? ??' ??'?+??'??? ????? ???': ??'?????, '+???% ??'???? ???'? +' ?'??'? ??'? ???'????'? ?'??'.

?? ?? ??'? ???'??: ?? ?'???, ?? '?'?' ???'???? ???+?'' ??????? ?''. ?'??? ????' ???'???? ????????'? '??'???? '??' ? ??' +?' ???+???? ??'???'??? '?? ????'??, ?? ??+:?????'?. '??'? '???, '?+' ???'? ?? ?? ?' ?'????', ?' ?+?'??? ? ?????? ???????? ?+'?' ?? ??'????? ? '?'???'??: ?''??:' ?' ? ''???' ?????. ?'??? ??'??' ????:, ?'? ??'????' ? ???%?? ??'? ? ''???' ?????. ????? ? ???? ??'? ?? ?' ?'??? ???'?'? ?'? ??? ??'??; ?????, ? ?'-

106 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'? '???? ?? ?????' ('Brains as Behaviour', 1963) ?? ?'?'??' ???'? ''????-+:????'????' '??'??? '+?'' ?? '???'????? ???'????? ????'??? ???????: ???. '???, ?????' ??, ??' ??'''?'? +?'?, ? ?????'???? ? ????? '?: ???????: ???. ??? ?? ??? ? ?????'?' ?????? '???? ???'. ?'??? ??'?' ? '??, '? ?????' ? '??  ???? +?', ??'???? ?'??' '????? +:????'.

????? ??'? ?'????? '?? ''???'?'?'?'?'? ?'?'????? ???'???? ?' ?????' ?? ? ????? ?????? ???:?? ? ''???' ?????, ??'??'? ?'' ?'?'??? '?????'???. ' ???: +?' ???: ?''??: ?? ?'?? '?, '?: ?? '???? ???'' (1960), ?? ?+?%'?? ? ????'? '???' ??????'. ?' ?????'? ??? ??+'''???, '? ?' ??? ????'?'? ???? ?????? ?? ????'?? ????? ?'? ?'??'??? ???'???? ??????????' ????'': ???? ?? ???? ????'??, ??'??' ???'?'??' '?:???' ???'' ???'. -' ?????' ?+????' ? '????' ???'????', ??? ?:, +??? ????'? ????'??? ?????, ???'??'?? ???? ?'???? ???????, ??'??? ??' ???'?'? ???'????, ????'?? ?? ????, ?? ????'? ????? ??'?' ?'???'? ???? ?????? ? ???'?'?'? ? ???'???%? ?:???'? ???'?. ?? '??? ???? ? ??? ?????? ???? ?????'?, ???+% ? ????? ?????? ? '??, ??: ?'?'?? ?? ?????'??????. ?? ?'? ??'?? ???, ?''?? '? ???+???, ?? ?'????'?, ?????'???'?, ??????'?, ?????'? '.?.; ? ????''???? ?? ???, ?????'???????? ???? ?????, ??' ?'??? ?'''??? ?? ?'+???'? ?'?'?, :??'?? ???'?''?, ?''????? ?????? ???????? ?' ???', ?????'????????? ????? ?????. '? ???% ? ?:?'' ???', ??? '?, ????' +''? ??'??'?' ??? ??': ?'''??, ? ?: ????' ???'???'??? ?'?'????' '??', '???'??' ' ?????' ???'''', '? ? ?? ?? ????' ????'?'?'? ??+?? ???? '?  ???? ??????.

' '?? '???'?, ?? '????'??' ?'??? ? '?: ??'?, ??'? '? ??''????? ???'???? ?'???'?'?'?? ? ????'??'? '??? '????? ???'????, '? '?, ? ?????, ?' '?'?? '? ?+ ?'?', '? -? '?+' '??, '? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?:???'?? ? ????? '??  ???'???. ?? ?''??, '? ?? ??'?? ? ??????+? ?????+?? '???? ?' ????? '??  ???' ??????, ?'?, ?'???' ?'???, ?'? ??:? ? ?????. ?' ???, ???? +' ???'?'???? ' ??+?'? ? ??'?'? ?'???  ???? ? -? '??, ? ?' ? ?: ?' ???.

' ?+?' '?'???'? ?? ??''??? ??' (1973) ?'??? ? ?'???%? ???????? ?? ????'?'?' ???? ????? ??? (? ?' '????'??? +?' ??'?????): '?, ?? ?'???', '(1) '? '??? ? '???' ?'? ??? ?????? (2) '? ??:?'???? ???'???? '??? ?' ?'? ???'???? ???' ?????? ' ????? ???'???? ???' ?????-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 107

?'. ???'??? ?'?? ??, ?' +' '?'?, '?, ???'?'??? ??+?' ?'', '? -? '?+' '??, ?? ?? ?:??'?? +' ? ????? '??  ''??????' ???'???, ?? ? ? ????? '??  '???? ' '?'???'?????' ???'???, '.. ?' ???' +' ???????? ??????? ???'? : ? '?? ??? '???'???? ?:?' ???' ? ?'' ?' '???? ?'.

' ???'???%? ?'??? ???' ? ?'????, '?, ???????? '???? ??'??, ?? '??%?'???'? ?+??? ??+'??'. ?+? ''????' ???'???? ???' ?????? ???? ????''? ????? ?' ??-'+? %. ??'? ??? ??' ?:??'??? ? ????'???? ???'??? ?' ??????, ???, ????'??? ?'?'?, ?' ??'??? ??'?'?? ?'??'?? '???, '? ?:??'?? ? ???' ?? ?? ?+??, ?? ??+?''??? ?? ?'? ?'?, ? '? '?+' ??'???'?, ? ???? ?? ?:??'?? ???'???. ????'?, ????'? '??? ???'????, ? ??'???? ?:???? ?, ???? '????? X ? ?', ?'???' ?'???, ?????'?' '??? '???, '? X Y ??'??'?? '????, ????'??? ?''??? ?? ? ??'??': ?'?????: ??? '????'. ???'???, ?'?' ??, '?????'? ? ??' +''? ? ????'? ???'????, ? ?????? ????': ???'????'.

- +?' ??'??? ??+?'??? '?????'?, ??'???? ?'?' ???:???' ?+?'' ?'???, ? ?'? '?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??'??? ?'?? ??'???: ????'?''? ''???'???? ??:?'?? ??? ???? ''+?' ?', ?? ?'??' ?+?''??? ? '??'? '??'?. ' ?? ???:??, ????' ????'?'???? ? ?+?' '????? ????' (1969) ??'?? ?' ? ?''??:, ???+'?????': ??? ???? ''???' ????' ('Brainstorms', 1978), ???'?? ??'? ????'?? ??'?????: ?????'???'? ?'''?', '????'?, ????'??? ??:?'???, ???'????? +?'??? ''???'? ????? ?' ???'???? '??' ????' ?? ??' ''???' ???, ???%??? '????'?'??'? ???????? ???+'?? ??? ? ????' 8. ?'??? ?'???' ?? ?%. '?-???':, ?'?? ???'?? '?'? ??'??' '??', ? ???? ? ?' ???? ?+'?' ??'?????; , ??-?'??':, ??, ? ???? ????, ?+?' ???? ?'?'??' ????'? ?' ????? ?????, ?'?'?, +?'?, ???? ?' '?? ?+???, '? ?? ??'????? ?'?? ???'? ??'?? ???' ? '? ???'??. ?' ?'????' +??? ????'??? '??? ?? ???:?? ? ??': ?+%: ?':.

'??' ??' ???? ?+?'? '????? ????' ? ??'?? ? '??, '? ?' ? ??'?' ?''? '? ?'??, ?? '???', '?'?'?', '????', ? '+?'?', ?'??'??'?. ?'??? ?????, ?? ?????'?'?' ???'?+'? '?: ?'?? ? ???'?+'?? ?'?? '??' ? ?'?? '?? ???' ', '? +?' ??????, ?? ?'???? '??'??' ? ?'?? '?? ??'??' ??'??'. ? ??%?'??' ? ?+??' ??? ??? '??', ? ?+??' ??? ??? '??'??'. (??'??'? ??'?? ?' ? '?  ???, '? ??'??'? ?'?.) ??'???'? ?+??? ? ??%?'??' '???? ?+??', ?? '?'?'?', '???', :?'? ?'?-'? ???'? ???'?'??? ??' ??'?: '????'?? ???? ?? ???' ? ??'?-

108 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?? ???? ?'?'?'. ???'??? ?????? ? '??, ???? ' ?'?? ?'???'?'? ?'?'?, ??? ' +?'? ? ???'???? ??? ' ? ???'???? ???' ??????, ??'?'?? ?'?'?. '??? ???+'? ???'?' ? '??, ?? '' ?+???'' ?, ? ??'??': ?' ?????? ? '???:' ?' '??, ? ?'' ?' ?????, ??'??'?? ???'??'? ?+??'?, ?' ????' ? ''? ?+???'? ?, ? ??'??': ?' ?????? ? '': ????: '??: ?+??':'. '??' ? ?'???' '-?'?, ? ?+?%'?? ????? ? ??'??, ?? ????'? ?'?' ???????'? ?+????? '?'??'?? ?'? '????? ??''????? ?'????' ??? '????'?? ???' ?' ?' '?'??? ? ??'??, '? ??%?'???' ???'??' ??''??' '???', ??'??' '???'??'?? ??? ??? ???''?? '??'??'? : ?? ??'??'??''. ?+???'' ?, ? ??'??': ?' ?????? ? '???: ?' '??' ???'?? ??? ? '??'??, ?' ??'??'?? '?'???'??'?'. ' ???: ??:?'????: ?'?????: ?' ?????? ? '??: '???, : ???:, ????:, ?????:, ?? ??'??': ??' ?????. ('??? ?'? ?'? '??, '? '?? '?', ?'?', ?????'?? ??''? '.?.)

-'? ???+?? ?'? ???'???' ?? ??????? '?'?. ??? ???'????, ?? ?????' ? '??? ?'?, ??'??'?? ?'? ???'????'??'?; ?? ? ????'?' ? ???-'+? ?????. ???'??? ????? ? ????' +''? '??? ???'?????. '??' ? ????' ?'?' ?????.

'????'?, ???'?' ??, ?' :?'? ?????'? ???'?? ???', ???%? ? ?:?''. ??'? ? ?'?? ?'? ??? ??'?'?? '??? ?+??'??, ?' ? ???? ???' +', ?????'???? ? ?? ????%?? ?'????? ??'??'?????? ?'????, ?????'?, ?? ?? ?'????', ?', ? ?????, ???'??? ??' ? ?????-'? ????'????? ?+?', ????? ?'??'?? ?'?? ? +''? +' ???'??'? ???????. ' ???? ?' '? ???' +' ?????'? ??? ???' ? ????? ??? ????'??? ?' ?:??? ????%??, '? ?? ?'??'' ?'?? ????'??? '????????' ????'???. (??, ?? ??'????'?? ''??? ????? ?????? ????????, ? ???? ?????'?, '? ?' ? ??'?? ''???, '? ?????? ????'??'? ?'?, '? ???'?? ??? ????'???? ???????'.) ????? ????'???? ?:?'?': ??? ?????? ?'?'? ?'??, '? ? : ????'???%? ? ???? ????' ?????'?, ?? ????' ?+? ??? ?? ????'???? :?? ???'???.

' ?????? ??????? ?+?'?? ???' ????' ? ?????'??? ???' ? ? '??' '????? ?'???? ' ????'???, ? ?? ?'???'????'. ' ?'?? ?'? ???? ????????' ?? '?, '? ?' ? ???? ??????? ????'???? ?'????, ?+'?' ????'??'? '?? '? ?'?'?', ?? ? '?? ???? ???'??'?. ???'??? '??'?, ?'??? ???'??? '?+?'???? ?? ?? '???, '?+' ??'? ?'????, ??'???? ?'??' ??????'?', ?????, : ', ?? ????', '? ?????'??', ?' '???'. ?? ?'' ?'???%? ?+%? ?'???: ''??? ??'? ??' +''? ?'?'? ?'???? ?? ?'?? '? ??????????, '? ?'? ?? ??'?? ???+?'?, ??'?'?

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 109

?'? ?+?????? ????'?? ??+:???'? ?'? ??????? '??'??'? '?, +??'? ?? ?' ???? '?? ??'?'?? ???'????'. ' ????? ?'? +''? +' ????'?? ? ?'?' ??'?, '? ??? '? ?' ? ???'?''????'' ???? '??, ?' '?'??? ?' ? ?????'?? ?' '??' ?'??? ? ?'' ?' '? '???' ''?' ?'? ?? ????+??': ??%???'?, ? ?'?, ???'?'??%: ???? '???, ?? ??' ?+? ??'?' 9. (??? ??:??? ?'??? ???? ????'? ? ??'?': ?????:, ? '? '?? ?''?, '? ? '?? ????'???' ? ?'?? ?'? ????'??'?? '?, ??? ??'?? +''? ??'??, '?+' ?''?.)

??? '??' ''???' ????' ?+'?' ??????, '+'??-?:??', ??'??'-''??'????' '?, ?? '??? ?'?''. ' ???, ??????%? '???+'??' ?''?? ?' ?'? ????? ???'??? ? ???, ?' ?? ????'?'?' '??? ?? ?+%?'?? ? ??'??. ????+?? ?'?, ?? ?'???' ?????' ???'? '???, ???'?'???%: '???? ? ???', ??'??? ???'???? ??????? ????' '?'? ?'?'' ? '?? ??????, '? ? ?? ?????'?'?? ??'?, ?'? ???'??' ?''?' '???'????' ?'?, ???? +'????? ?'??? ?+?'??''??'?? ???? ????', ?????? ? ?????? ? +???????'?, ? ??' ???''? ??' ? ?????? ? '??, '? '?+?'?? ?'? ??????? ???'????? ?'? 10. ????? ?? ? ???' ???'? '???, '?+' ?+??? ????'?'?'? '??? ' '?+?? ??'?? ?? ???'??%?? ??' '??? (subpersons) ?' ???????'??, ?' ???'????? ???%: ? ?+ ?'???? '??? ????+??, ?? '?'??? ?? ??'??, '? ? ???'???%? ????? ?' ?' ???? : ?'+???'?.

?'????? ??????'? ?????, ? ??'??'? ?'?'???'?? '??'; ?????, ?? ???', '? ?? ? ?' ???????'???'? :??'? ???????? ' ?%?%?? +?', ??'??'? ? ?' ?'?? ? ? ???? ??'? ?????'?????? ?'''?'. ?? ?'?'' ? ????? ????+??' ?+?'''??'. ? ?'?? '?'??? ???? : ???+????'?. ?? ? ? ??'?', ?? ? ???'?' ?+? ??'??, '? '?+? ?'??, ?+'?? ???'???? ?? ? ??: ??:?'????: ?????:, '?-'? ?+??'. ???'??' '?: ?'???, ?'???' ??, ? ???' ????? ??' ? '??'???? ??:?'??. '' ????-'? ??'?', ?' ??' ??, ?' ? ???? ??'?, '? ? ??%?'??' '??? ?%, ?? ?'?'?' ' (??+??) +?'?. ?? ?' ? ???, '? ?'? ? ?????' ? ?+ ' :??'??'?, ??'??'?, ?? ?' ??'??, ?+'?' ?'?'? ' +?'?; ?''? +''?, ?? ? ??'??'?? ???'??? ?'????'?????'? '??'??? ????'??. '????? ? ?'?'?:, ?? ? ?'?', '? '??'?? ?'?, ????? ??'??': ?'? ?? ? ??????? ????'??'. ? ?'?' ?? '???, '? ??'?? '??+''?, ??'??' ???'??'???' ?? ?????, ? ?'? ????' ????'?'? ?????'. ?? ?'?, ?'???' ??, ? ?+'?' ?+? ?'? :??'??'??. '?? :? ?'? ??'?'??????? ?''?? ????+?': ?%?'.

???? ????? ?+?'??? ? ?'????. '? ?'??? ?' ? ?:??'???'

110 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?? ?? ???'??'? ?+? ?????????? ?'?', ''?????' ''???', ?? ?'??? '???. ?? ?' '? ?'?' ???'?????? ?????+???'? ?'??? ???'? ??? ??'??', ??? ? ???: ??????????. ??'?'? ??? ?'' ? ????:, ????'' ???'??? '????????'? ?????'. ??? ???'? ?''? ''???'?'?????, :?'? ?? % ???+'??', ????? ????? ?:???' ?+ ??'???, ? ? ??'?-???????? ??; ?'? ''???'?? '?????? ???'? ?'' '?????'???'?', ? '???'?'?'? ?'????'' ?' '? , ?? '?????? ?'? +?'???: ?'?'?? +'' ':?'?' ? ???'???? ''??????? '????'. ' ?'??'?'?? ?????'?? ? '??, '? ?''??? ????'? ? '?? +''? '?? ??????? ????? ? ?'''?'?'???? ???? ?? ??'?? '?'?, '??? ?? ?''?? ''???'' ? ??? ???? ??'?', '? +?'???? ?'? +'' ?????'? ?':???? ?' ???????? '??. ' ???? ?+?' ''? ???' (1976), ??????? ??? ?'??? '??' '????, ?'??? ?+???'?' ? ???? ?'??? ??:?? ? ?'????? ?': ???': ???? ?.

????, ?? ?? % ?????'?? ?'?, ??'??'? ?'?' '???'????'. ??? ?'? ?? ????' ???????? '???, ??????? ?+????'?, ???? +?' ??? ???' '?? ?'? ?'?'???' ???'??'? ?'??? +?' ????: '???, '? ?+????'? '? '+?' ??'' '?'', ?? ?? ?????+???'?, ???'??? ?'?, ?'? ???'?'? '? ??'?'? ????''????. ?? ?? ?? % ???', '?? ? ???: ?'??'???: ????' '?'?'? ??' ? '?? ??'?', '? ?? ????' ?'??'? ????'???? ????'? ?????%? : ???', :?'? ?'? '?'??' ? ?'??' ??????? ???'?, ?????'?'?? ?? ?+?' ? '?, ?+?? ?? ?? ??'?'??. ????? '??? ?? ??'???'?? ?'???' '? ?'??'? ?''??? ?'?, ??'??'?, ?? ?? ????'??, ?' '???'?' ?'????? ''?+?? ???'???? '?? ?? ???? ??? ' ? ?? ?'', ?????'??%??, '? ??'? '??? '?? ?'?' ? ????'???? ?'???? ? ???'????? ?'??'? ???. ?''??? ?'? ?'''?? ?' ???'????? ?'? ? ???: ?'?????:: ??-???':, ?? ?'??'?? ?'? ?'???'? ?+? ??: '???: ???, '??? ?? ???'???? ?'? ???? ?????' ? ????-'? ?????'??? '??, , ??-?'??':, ? ?''???? ?' '?? ?????'?'?? ????'? ?' '?+?? ?????'??? ?? ????''. '?-'? '? ??%?'??' ?%? ? ?+, ???%?, '? ?'?-'? ??' ? ???'???? ????'?, '??? ?? ? '?? ??? ???'????? ?'?' ?'?? ?'?' ??? '?? ' ??? '??. ?? ?'?? ??? ?''??? ?'? ?'???? ??????'? ???????'? '???, '? ?' '???+% +??'?'?? ? ?????+?' ?'? ???'???? ????'? ???'.

-'? ?' '? +?' ?+% ?'??'?, '? '??? ???' +' +''?, ???'??? ??? ??????'? ?? ??'???, ?????????, ? +??? ?? ?'?? ?'????. ?' ???' +' ??'???'? ?? ?'????? ???' ?' ?????? ????? ????' ?'????? ???' ??' ???+?''? +?'?-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 111

?? ?? ? ????????? ''???', ?' ??  ?? ???' +' ??'??? '????. '? ?'??? ? ??' +''?, ?'??? ?'''?? ?+?????'? ? ????%?? ?????', ??'??'? ?'??'?? ? ????? '?? ????'? '? ??'????? ?' ???'?, '? '??? ? ??' +''? '?'????' ?? ?'?? ? ????''????'? ??'??? ?'????'.

'?' ?????? ?+?' ?'??? '??, ?'? ?'???' (1981) ?'' % ????? '?' '?', '? ?? ? ????'? ??'??' ????'???? ???'??'???, ?? ?'''?? ?'??'? ''???'? ? '?? '?, '?+' ??????? ? ? '???  ?? ?'?' ?'? ??''?, ?? ???'??'??? ? ?''???. ' :??'???? ?'? ??? ???, ??  ????+?? '???, ?? ??' ? ?????? ?:?'???. ????? ?' +??'?'?? ?:?'??? ??? ?+??'??'? ??+??'??'?. ????? - ????'? ?'?? ?:?'?? ''???'', ?'???' ??, ?'????' ?''?, '? ?' ???? ?'+??, ?? '+? +''? ?'?'??, ???????? ???'???? '?? '????????' ' '???'?'?'??' ?'????', '+? ???'? ? '??'?'???'? ?'?'??', ??'??'? ??' +''? ' ? ?'' ???+??, ?'?'???%?? ? +?'????'? ???????': ??????? ?'? ???'?%?? reductio ad absurdum, ' ? ?'' ???, ???? '?' ?????? ????'??'? ??'?????. ?''??? ?'? ??'?'???'? ?'?'?? ?' ?'? ?'' ??+?; ???? ??? ?? ?'??? ??'?? ?????' ???? ???+'? ? ????: '??, ??'??? ? ??'??????, ?? ?? ?'', ??? '?????' ? ?+ ?'??'' ?+??'????? ??+??'?????'.

''???? ?''??, ??'???? ??+:???? '?????''?', ??'?'?? ?:?'??? ??? '?'?? ????'??. ?'??? ???'??' '???? ???? ??? '?'?? ???'????'??. '?' ?????'? ??+'''???, ?' ??'?' ??, ?' '? ???'???'? ??'?? ?'? ?'???? ??-'+? ? '?'? ??'?'?? ?? ???'??? ???'???'?'. ????'??? ?'?' ??'??, ?' +??? ?''? '?'? '?, '? ?+'?? ''???'', ? '?'??? ''???'', ?'??' '????'??', ???'?????'?'?? : '?'?. ?+? ????' ????'??': ???'??': ' ??''??: ???? ??' +''? ???'? ???'??'?. ???'??? ??'?? '????'?' '?''' '? , ?? ?'? ??+??'???-?+??'??' ?'?'.

??+:???? ??+?'?, '? ???'??? ???'???'? ? ??'?'?? ?'? ?'??? +??'?'?'? ????'?. '?? ?'???'???? ????', ?' ??' ??, ?' ????' ? ??? ????'?'?? ? ??, ? ??'??? ?:??' ?? ????'?'? ? ??: ?+ ?? ?' ?'??? ??, ?? ????'?? ?? ?????'. ? ?'? ??'? ? ??????' ?? ? ????? +'?? ???'??? ? '???, '? ?? ?? ?'?' '???? '?'?'???? ????? ??'?'?????? ?'?'?? ?'???'??'?, ????+???? '???, '? ????' '????? ''???''' , ? ?'???', ????? ?'??' ?'?'???, ?'?' ??, ?' '?'?? ?:?'??; ?? ?' ???' ?'+?'? ??? ????'? ????': ?????? ???'????' ??'?'???'? ?'?'????. ?' ????' ????'??, ? '? ?'? ????' ???'. -???, ?? ? ????: ?'??:, ?? ?????' ? '???: ?+?'??? ???; ?? ?'??''? ????' ?'?'? ?? ?-

112 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'? ?? ????', ??? ??: ?????? ??' ???'?'? ? '?, ??? +???' ?? ?'??''? ?' '??? '?  ?? ?'??''? ????' ??'? ?? '??, ?? '?, ?? ?'??''? ?' ?'?, ??' ??'? ?' ??: '???. (????' ? '?????'??? ??????'.)

% ?? '??' ?''' ??'?' +''? ?????' ? ??:. '?-???':, ???'????'? ? ??? ? ??'?'?? ?'??? ' ??? ?? ?????? ? ???'????'?? ?? ???. ????' ???'????' ??' ??????'?? ?????. '?-?'??':, :?'? ? ??'?? ?'???'?, '? ???? ????'? ?????' ?? ?' ?'? ???'?? ???????'? ???'????? ?'???? '?? ('?? ???, ??'???? ?'??? ????'?' '?'??), ?' ????? ? ?'??' '? ?'???'?, '? '???? ????????' (makes up) ??'. ?' ?? ??? ?''??, '? ??, ?? ?? ????, ??'? +''? ?'???%?: '???? ?? ?????'?? ?????????' ???? ??'. -??? ?? ??' ? ?'????? '?'?, ??'??'?, ?????, ????'??? ???'??' +', '? ?'? ?? % ??? ??-??'???.

?' ? ??? ?'???'? ????'??? ?'?''? :???? ??????? ?'???, ?? ?? ?'? ??+?' ? ?????'?, ??'??' ??? ???'???' ? ???'??' ????'??? ?': ??, :?'? ?? ?'??? '??? '?'??' ?'??' +' ?????. ????'?? '?? ??? ????': ?? ???''?? ???'? ????? ???'????'? ? '????? ????'??. ?' ?' ?+?'???, ?????' ??, ? '????, ??'??' '??' ????'' '?? ?'?' ???'??'? ????'?', ?' ?+????, '? ?? ??'??'?? '????'?? ??', ?+'??%? ????'??'? ???'???'??: ?? ??'??'?? '??'????''??? ?''?'??'?, '???? ???'???''??'?, ???'??%? '?????'??? ????''?'. ???? ?' ?'? ?' :??'??'? ???'???'??? '?''??? ?'?'' ??' +', '? '?? ?????+?? ?' ????? ??'?'? '???, ??'??? '???'?'?'??'' ???. ? ?'? ?'??? ? ??'?????? ??? ?'?', '? ?? ?'? ? ?' ??'?', ?' ?' ?? ? ??? ???'?'?'? ???'????? ???????, ?????'????? ???. ???'???? ??????? ??'?'?? '???????' ? ???? ????????? ???. (?? '??? ?'?? ?'???' '?  ???.) ?? ?' ????? ????-'? ?????'?'? ?? ? ??'? ????????? ??, ?????'' ??, '?'??? ??'???, '? ?? ??'?'?? ???'??? ???'?'?, :?'? ?? ????'?'?? ? ???'???? ???'???' ????', ? ???? ????, ??'??? ? ??'?'' ????'? ?'??? ??. ??? ?+???, ?? ????? ????' ? '??, '? ?''? '??'?'??'? ????''??'? ?'''?'??', ?'' ?????'? ?? ????' ????????? ??.

'??'?'??'?' ? ??' ??? '?-'? ???? '??'? ???'?'. '??? ?'????????? ????? ?? ?'?' ??'?? ? '??, '? ?? ????' ???'????' ??'?'?? '????????'??%?, +??? '?? ????? ?'? ???? ????'?'?? ? '?????? ????'?, ??? ? +'?'. (????-'? ?'? ?????' ?'??? '???.) ? ??' ' ?'?, '? ?? ???-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 113

?? ?? ???? ?' ?? ? ?????, ???? ? ? ???'?' '????? ????'?, ? ?' ?? ????? ? '??, ?? '? ?? ???'??? ??'?, +???' ???'??? ???? ?' ???? ? ???? ??'??? ????'?? ?'? '???? '??? ?': ? ??%?'??' '???'??????? ????'? ???'??': ??????, ??'??' ? ????? ??'??'??', ? ? ???'?' '????? ????'?'.

?'??? ?' ? ??'?', ?????, ?'?'?, '? '?? ?'? ????'? ??' ?' ??'?'??' ??'?'?? ?'???''??'?'. '???? ????? ?'??? ? ??'' ???'???'?, '? '??'?'???'? ?'?'??' ???????''?. ?? ??'??' ? ''???'?? ?????', ??'??'? '????'??' ?'???%? ?+???: '' '?? ?'?'??' ? ??' ???'? ??'?' ?'? ??? '+''? ???'?' '???'?, '? ???'; ?'? ??', '? ? ?????? ?' ? ??%?'??' ?'? ??? '?'???'?' ' '?'?''?' '?-'?, ? ????? ?'????', '??????'? ???'' (' '????'? ??''??' ?+?''), ? ??????'. ?'??? ?''?' '? ?'??'?, ?'???' ??, '? '? ???? ? ?'?'?% ??%?'??, ???? '?? ??'??'. ? ?'?' ?'??? ?? :??'??' ?? '??''??? ????+??'??'.

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

???? ?? ??? ?????' ??? :??'??? ?'? ''???'??, ???%:?? +'? ??'???? ?'?'?? ? '?  ???? ?'????%: '?''??? ?'?'. ?'???, ?? ??', ?:??'???' ??'?'???'? ?'?'?? ?? '???? ??'?, ?'? ??'????? ?+??? ?'?' ?'????'???, ? '?. ????? ??'?'???'? ?'?'?? % ???? ? ?'????? ???:???? ? ''???' ???, ??'??'? ??'?'?? ??? ???'? ???''? ????'?'? ???? ?? ?+? ?'?? ???'????' ?' ???'????', ? ??'???? ? ??'??' ??'?? ??''?? ??'??' '?'??' ??'??? ???' ??? '???' ????? +'????? ?????? ?????'????? ?????? ?'??.

???? ? 1968 ?. ?.?.?? ?????'??' ???? ?'?'??? '?'???'? ???', ?? ?'?'' ? ????'?? ?? ???+????' ??+???': ? ?? ?''?: ??-???':, ? ?: ??'?'?? ??? ?'? ????? ?'???? ????? ???'? , ??-?'??':, ??? ?'??'??, ?? ?' +' ?? +'' ?''???, ?

114 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???'?'?? ?????? ?+?????? ?????? ????????. '? ?: ??? ? ?'???? ??? ????: ?+?' ?? ''???' ??? ?' ??? +'' +' ?????'?'. ???, ?? ??' +' ?'??' ?': ?+?', ????'' ??? ?'????'?????? ?:?+:?? ?' ??? ???'??'?? ?'??''? ???'??'?? ?+???????. ?' ?' :?'? ?'?, ?? ??????'?? ?'??''?, '? ???'?''??? ?'?' ??', ????, ?? : ????'?'??, ?? ????' ???? ????, ?? ?'??' ?+?''???, ??????' ?' ?'??', ? ? ''???', ? ??:?'?? ' ???'?? ('?+'??' '??????' ??'' ?'? ''???'??). ?'???'? ??? ?'????' '?'??? '? '???? ??????', ?? ?????? ? ???????' ???'????? ??????'?? '?? ???'?.

' ????: ?'?' ? ?'?' ?????'?'? ?????? ''???'' ?' ????+??'? ????'???, : ??'????? ?'?'? ?'??', ?'?'? ??'??' ????' ?'?'? '??? ?'?, '? ?' ??? ???????', ?? ?'? ? ??? ?+% ????. ???? %, ? ? ? ?: ???'??'?? '??? ????'???'? ? '?? ' ??? ????????'??????? ???' (?' ???'' +'' ????' ? '?' '' ''???''), '  ?? ????'?? ? '? ???'???% ??+?'? ? ?'?? ?+'?', ?? ?????????? (? ??: ???) '??? ??'?????' ' ?''??? ?'????'?????' ???'' ??+??'??'????? ?' ???. ???'?? ??'??'?? ??'??? ???'????'????'?? ???? ?????. ?????, ?? ?' ??', ??? ?'?'??' ???'? '?+?? '???' ??+??'??. ???'??? ?? '?? ??'?????', ????'???', ????'??' ????'????? ???'?? ?? +???? ??'??': ???'?, ??'??'?? ?'?'?  ?+??'??'? ?????'?? ?': ???'?, ?? : ?'??' ??'?. ''? ??+??'??', ????'?, ??'?, '? ??? ???'? ????? ??'??? ???: ?' ????'???? ????'???'?, ?' ??'? ? ??? ??'?????' ??''? ?'??? ? '?, '? '? ??????'. ??+??'??'' ??'???' ?????'??? ?:?????? ??'?? ? ?'???? ??? ???'????%? ???'? ???'??, ???? '? ????'???'? ???'' ?? ????'??': ???'????%: ???': '???'??? ??? ??'?????' ???'?'? ? ? ?? ??'?? ?'? ?': ???':; '??? '?  ?? ?' ????'??': ???': ?' ???' +' +''? ??'??'? ???'?'? ? '?, '? ???-'? ?????'?? '???? ?'??' ? ??:-'? ?????'?': ???:. '???? ???? '???? ? ?-?'' ????????'???' ?'?' '?, ??+?'? ?'??' ???'??? ???'???????' ???? ?'+?? ?'??? ('?+', ? ?????, ?' ? ?'' '???? ??? ?'???, ???? ?? '?+?? ???'? ?+?''??? ??+?' +?????) ???'?? ?????' +???????? '??, ?''??%? ?????' ????'???'. ??+??'??'?? '??, ?? ??', +'' ??+?'?' ? ?'????? ?'???? ?'?'???? ?%?????', :?'? ???, ?? ??'??' ???'??', ?'?????? ?':?? ?' ?'?'??': ???? ????'???'? ?'???'?'?? ??? ? '??''??', ? '?'??''??' ????. (????+?? '???, ?? ? ???: ??'??' ????'?? '????, '? ?'? ?????': ???' ? ??????.) '??? ??'???'' ???'?? ? '??? ??, '??? ????'? ?-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 115

??? ' '??? ????????, '?+' ?????'? ????' ????? ???'' ?'? ?' ?????? 12.

?'?'? ?''??'? ?+?? ????+??? ''?'??', ?', ?????, ?????'???? ??? ???? ? ????? ?'????, ??'??' ??'???'?? ?'????' ?? ???''?? ???'? ?????????. -'? ??, ?????? ' ?', ??'??' ??? ? ????'???? '??? ?'?'??. ???'??' ?: ????-'? +'' '??? ????' ? ??'?? ???????. '?'? ??????'?'? ????'?? ??'?? ?+???? ?''? ??? ???? ??? '?'?? ?'? ??????, ??'?'??'? '??'? ???' ???' (1970) ?????'? ? '?? ?????'?'?? ??'???? ??? ?????. ??? ???-?? ??+'?. ?? ?'???' ?????, ?? ?'?' ????-'+? ???????'? ?????? ??'?? ????'???'? ?'? ?+??????? ???' ?' ? ???'????'????'? ??+????????? ???:???, ???'??? ??'?????, :?'? ? ??%?'??' ????, ?'?????'???'? ???'? ????, ?+?%??? ? ?'???''??'? ????'???'??; ?? ?'?' ? ??%?'???? '??? ?% ?? '?+??????' ? ??'??? ??'?' ?'??? ?'??. ? ? '?  ???? ?? ?'?'?'?? ?????'?'? ???? ''???'? ??? ? ???'?''???? ????? ???'? ????'? ? ????-'+? ?? '??? ????????, ???'??? ??'???? (???? ?????? ?'?' ? ???'???' ???': ???') ??? ??': ??'?'?? ?'??? ???+??? ??'??.

'?' '???, ?? ???? ?????'? ?'???'?? ?? ? ?'??, '? ???'?? ?' ? ???? ??'? ?? +'' ??'??? ?+????'? ?' '???' ??'?????. '??? ?+?%?? ??????? '? ??? ??????? ? ???'??, ??:?'?? ' ?'?? ???, ?' ??' ?? ? ?'?' ????, ?' ???'?' ?????'?''. -' '???' ??'?????, ?????' ??, '?????' ????'? ??? ???????'? ?????'. ???'??? ??? ?'???'? +' ?'?''? ???? ?' ????????, ? ??'?? ??'?, '? ?''? ????? ? ?': ?+'?'?:. ? ???? ? ?????? +???????'?, ?'?? ???'???'? : ?'? ?'?'?? ??? ?' ?????????'?'? ????? ?'? ?????? ????????. ?? ?? ????, ??%?'??' '??? ??'?????, :?'? ?? ? ??'?'?? ????'???? '?????. ? '??? ? ??' +''? ??????????' ?'???.

????: ?? ????? ??''? ? ?+?' ?'?' ?'?', :?'? ?? +'' ??'??' ?????'? +?' ?????'?' ??'??' ??? ?'???''??? ????'???? ??? ???': ???'??. ????? ?'???', '? ??????? ? ??? ???%?'?'?'?? ??'? ?????'??? ????????. ?' +' ???? +''? ???'?, '? ?'???? ?'? ??'? ????' ??' ???, '? ?'? ???'?'? +', ?'' ??, '? ????? ??+'?? ', ?? ????? ?? ?' ?' ??????'? ?? ??'? ? '??, '? ?? ?'???' ????'????, ? ???''???? '???, ?' ??' ?'?:?? ???' ??'?.

'??' +?' ???''??? ?????'?? ???: ': ''???'??, ??'??' ?????'?? '??? ??, ?' ??? '???? ??' ???+?? 13. ?? ?' ? ???' ?'?', ??' '?'?? ???'? ? ?+ ????

116 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???+'??????? ? ??? ?''? ?? ''???' ?'?'?, ??'?'???? ? ????? ?????? ?? ''??''??'? ????????' (BJPS, 1963?' 1964, ?????'?? ???+'????' ? 1976 ?. ? ?? ???). ' '?? ? ?: +'' ????? ? ?'?'? +?' ????????'?????'? ???' ???????????? ''?-?'????. ??+:???? ???????'? ?'??? '????????'?????'?'. '?'?? ??'?'' ??'? ???? ? '?, '?+' ???'? ?'' ?? ???' ?' '??????' ''??'???? ?' ???, ??'??? ?+'?? ????'?' ?????? ?? ?? ?'??????, '? ???'???. '?'?? ????', '? ????? ? ???: +?' ??'????': ?'??'???: ? ?'???', '? '??? ?'??' ?'+??'?'? ??? , ?? '?'??? ??'??' ???'???% ? ?+'????. ?? ???'????, ??? ?'??? ?'????: ??'????? '?'?? ???' ? ?'????, '? ? ????????'?????'? ''??'???? ? ???'??. '' ??? ?' ?'???? ? ???? ? ?????'???: ????????:', ?' '??? ?+%? ?'??? ?? ?'' ? ?+?' '????' ? ?'' ?' '???%: ???????'??'' (1975?). ? ??'?? ? ??+'????????? '???'????'??' ????? ?? ??'??' ?? '??'???''???: ???????' ?'' ?'?'???? ? ???? ????. ? '?'??? ? ?'??, ?'???' ??, ?' ?'???? '?' '?', '? ??' ?'? ???????' ???'??' ?'?, ?????, ????' ????????, ?'?' ?? ?'? ? - ???? ??:?'?????? ?'+??' ' ? ??'?'' ??'?? ?? ?'????' ?+%?'?. ?? ??+:???? ???'??'? '?. ?' +' ?' ??', '?, ???'??? '?, ?? ???'???' ????'???, ?' ??'?' +'' +' ?'?'?, '? ?? ??? ????'??. '''? ???'??' ???, ?'? ''??', ?? '?'???, ?'??' ???????'? ? ?? ?'?'??' ???'', ?? ?'???'????' ??'???''??? ???????'. ? ?? '?'??? '?? ''???' ????, ???????? ????'???, ?'???' ??, ?'+??'?'? ????????, ??'??? ????'?' ?''? '???''??', ?????', ??'??'??%' ??????? '?'??? ??'???, '? ??'?? '??'?' '?''', ??'??', ?? ????'?'?'??, ???'???' ?????, '%? ? ????? ?'?? ???????', ???'???' ??????'? ????. ????'?, '?'?'??? ????' ???????' ??+:???? ?????'?? %%'? ?' ''??'??, ??? ??? ?????'' +''? ?'???'????'?. ? ????? ?'? '??'??? ????'?' ?'? %'' ?'??? ??? ? ????%?? ???????''??': ???', '? '??'??? ????'?' ?'? ???'???? ???'?, ??'??' ????' ???'???'? % +?' ?'???'????'? ?+??? ?' %'?' ???''. ???????'? ??'???? ????'? ???'?? ?? '???, ????'??? ?? ???' %''? ???? ???' ? '? ???'???'? ????' ???'' ?'? ???': ???????. ?? ?'??''? ???' '?'?? ? ?+?' '?'???'??? ???': ??'???''???: ???????', ??' ???+'??????? ? ?+???? '??'? ???' ?????? ???', ?? ??'? ???'??? ????'? ???????'? ?????. ????? ? ??'???'??. ?+? ?? ??????', '? '?'?? ???? ??' ????'???'. ?? ?'? ??????' ? - ???'???? ? ???'? ?+'????. '???'??, ??'??? '? ??

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 117

??' ? ?'?'? , ????+?? ??? ????? ''???'? ???, ???'????? ?' ??? ??+?? ?'?'???? '?? ? ??'? '???? ???, '?'?? ?'?'? ?'? ??? ???' ?+'????. '?' ??'? (' ?'?'?) ?' ??'???? ????'??, ?' ??' '?'??, ?' ?? ?'?'?'?? ??'?+'?'??? ? ?+'????'. ?'?'??????? ? ???+'???, ?? ''?' ? ???'??, ???' ?' +??' ?+? ??: ???':'. ?' '? ????' ?? ????????, '? ?'? ? ???'??' ???' ?+'????, ????'? '???, +?' ?'???'?????? ???????'. ???? '???, ?? ??????? ??' ?''? ??'??? ?'???'???. -'? ?????'?? ? ??????+???' ??'? ???' ???????, ??+''?'? ???????''??' ???'', ????%'? ???'??' '?'' ? ???'????% ? ????? %'' ????? ?'?'????? ???. -'? ??', '? '??'??? ????'?' ?'?'' ???? ????? ?'?, ???' ? ?? ?'?''? ?'? ?????? ?? ??'???''????? ???????'. ?????, ??+?'?' '?'??, ?' ? ??? +''? +??'?'?? ?????'? ? '??, '? ?'? '?'????' ? ??'?? '?? ?????'??'? ?'??? ?' ?? ?'? +''?, ?' ?????'???'??? ?'?'????? ??????, ? ?'? ?????????? '?? ?'?'?????? ?'+??.

'?'?? ???'' ????? ? '?????? '?? (?????'???) ?'? ??' ? ?? ?'. ?'????? ??? ???+???? ??????? ? ?'?'? ????''. ' ???: ????: ???????: ???+?? ???? ?' ????'?, '? ?? ? ???'??, ???? ?? ?'??' +'??? (' ??-) ???????. ????? ? ?+?' '?? +''? :????? ?????'??' (1963) ?? + ??'+?? ??'?', '? ?? '?+% ???????' ?' ???? ?'????? ? ????? ''???'-'? '??? '?? 14. ?? ??? '???' ?' +?'??? : ?'? ????? ? ????? ?''??? ???+'???? ? ?? '?'???'??: ?+?':' (1981) ?' ????' ???+??? ?????? ???'? ''???' ???, ??'?????? ?'?''? ? ?'?????? ?'? ??'?+'?'??? ? ?'' ?????? ?????. ?? ?'?'?' ?? ????: ???? ?'? ???'? ??'?? ' ??'????''? ???? ???''? ???'? ????????? ? ? '??, '? ??? ???'?? +'????? ???? ?????' ???'????? ?????. '? ?? ???'?' ? ?????????'??; ?'?' ???? ?????' ???????'? '???, '? ???' ??: ?+'???? ????' ??'??? ??+??'?, ????? ?' ???????'? ?'?'??, ?' ? ??'? ?'?????? '?? +?'?? ???'???? ???? ' ???'??? ????? ???'???': ???':. ? ?? '?? '? ????' +''? ??+??'?, :?'? ? ??'????''?'???? '?? ??? ?'? ???????. ????' ???''?, ?? ????? ??'?' ???+??, ?? ??????' ??? '.?.?''? '? ???+??'. ??? ????'', ?'???' ??, ???? ? ?? ????%?'??' ????'?? ??': ???'; ??'?????'? '????'? ? ?????, '??'??'? ?? '???'??'' ??'??', '?'??'??' ?+%????''?, ???' ??'???, ????'?'???% ?????? ????????. ??'??? ??? ?' ??'? ?'??, ???? ???? ???+??-?? ?? ? ?????? ?' ??'?'?? ?'???'??????.

118 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?? ' ???'?? ???''??'? '?, '? ????? ???+?? ???''?' ?? ????'?'?%?? ?????? ', ? ????? ?'?, ?? ??-?'+'????? ''???' ??? ? ?????? ???'?????'??'? ??'???. ????? ???+??, ????'?, ? ?': ??: ???+?' ?????? ???'? ?' ?' ??? ? ????-'? ?? +???' '?? ? ?? ??? ?+?''. ?'?? ?'??? ??????? ???? ???'?' ?? ?+?' '???'? ?'???'??????? ???????' ('Against Method', 1975), ?????'??? ?????? ?? ?'??''? ????? '????? ???'???-??:?'?' '?'???. ' +?' ????? ?+?' '??? ? ???+????? ?+%?'?' (1978) ?? ???' ??? ? ?', ? ???????? ? ?? +??????? ?'??': ??: ?'?'?': ??? ??'??. ' ?''?, ?????'??'???? ? ?'? ?'????? '?? ?? '?'???'??: ?+?'' ??'?'???? '??'???? ??????''?: ???'??' ?+'???? ?+ ???? ''???' ???', ?? ?+???' ?' ???' ? ?? %'? '?????'????? ?'?'??'.

?? ???? ??'???' ??????? ?' ?? ?+?'?? ?'?????? ??'??'?? '?+' ???'? ???, ?' ?'? ? ?'??: ?'??'???? ???' ?' ???? ??+'''??? ???????'? ? ?? ???: '???. ???'??? ??????, ????? ?, ???? ?'?-'? ?'''?? ????'??'? ????-'+? ??????? ? ??'? ?'??, ????' ??'????? ??+:???? ?'? ??????? ??? ?'? ??????? '?? ????'' ('anything goes'), ???'???? ? ??, ???+??, ???, ?' ???? ???? ??'? ?+?'??''??'?, ?? ??'??': ????' ?'??? ?'?? ? ??'?'?? ?'??? ?'+????. '...[?] ??%?'??' ???' ?' ???'? +' ?????????+?'? ???'??'???? ?+???????'? ??? ? ?'???, ?' ??'?' ?? ? ?+?' '???'? ?'???'??????? ???????', ?' ??'??? ? '? ' ?? ???? ? +''? +' ??????', ?'? ????:??' ? - ????''????? ??? ' ????''????', ??'??? '? '? ?????? '+??'?'?? ??+:???' ?'? ??'? ???'. ???'??? ? ??-'? ????' ???? '???'? ?????'?? ????'?, ??+''?'? %%'? ???'' ad hoc, ???'', ???'???% :????? ?+???????'? ?+%?????'? ???????''??'? ??'?''?' * '.?. ?' ??? ??''? ? ????????? '?' ????. '?'??, ??'?' ???+??, ?? ??', ???' ? '????  ?'????, :?'? ?? ? ???'? ??'?? ?'? ???'?. ?+? '?'?? ? ???' ????': '???'??': ??????? ?'? ??:?? ?' ????? ??'???''????? ???????' ? ??????. ??, '? ????'?'?'?? ?'????%??? ?????????, ?? ?? ???', ? ?' ??' ??'??? ??????????? ?????????. ?????'??? '?'?? ??'?', '? ?????'?'??% ??+?? ?????, ??? ? ????+?' ????' ??' ???? ???+??'? ?'????%??? ????????, +'?????, +??'????, ??' ??'??'? ????? ????' ??????? ?'? ??:?? ? ?????? ????????. ?? ????  ???+??, ?'? ? ??' ?''??? ???'??'?.

* ???+?? ?. ???'? ?'???'??????? ??????? // ' ??.: ?+???' '???' ?? ?'???'?? ???. ?., ???????, 1986. ?. 153-154.

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 119

? ???+?? ?'? % +?' ?'?+?? ??????? ?'? ????'?? ? '-?'????, ???? ? ?'?? ????' ???+?? ?+?' ??? ?'?'?' ?+? ?' ????'+'??': ''???'?? ???. '?'??, ?'???' ??, ????'? ?:??' ?????'??? ? '??, '? ??? ?'? ?'??? ??'? ? ?????? ?? ?? ????'??. ???+??  ?'', '? ??? ?'' ??? '?'+'???'??'. ? ??? '?????'??? ?'?'??'' ? ??' ????'? '?? '?? ???, '? ???-'? ?????'?? '???, +??? '? ???? ' '?+? ?????, ?' '??? ?'??'' ? '??? ?'??, ?? ?'? ?'?'?? ????'? ?+ ???. ?? ?? ?'???, ?? ?'??? ? ???'?' ? '??, '?+' ??'??'? ????'?'??, ??'??' ?'''?'?'' ??' '????' ?'? '???, ?''?': ?' : ??+?'?????'; '? ?' ???'??? ??? ? ?? '?+'??'? ???? ?' '???? ???' ?'?' ????'?'?? ? ??' ''?'??'???? ???''. ?????, ???' ??, '? ?'???', '? ? ??%?'??' '??? ?%, ?? ???'? ?'??. ?? ? ??? ?? ???'???''? '?, '? ? '??? ?'? ??'?'?? ?+???? ???'??, ??'??' ???? ??'?? ?''?'?, ????%'?? ? ??????? ?+?? ??+:???': ??'??? '???'????''. ???+?? ??:??' ? ?'?', '? ?'???'??????? '?'???? ??' ? '?? ????'?' +?'?? ?+????'?, ?' ?? ? ?????'???: ????????:, ??'???, ?? ????, ?????? ? ??????? ????? '??? ? ????%? ? ?'??? ????? ???+'?. '? ??'?? ''???' ??? ? '??, '? '??' ??'? ???' ?? ''???' ??? ?' ?'? ? ???+'??, ??'??' ? ????'?'??' ?'?? ? ?'? ????, ???? ?+?'???? ????? ?'???%: ?'??? ??????'. ?' ???+?? ???? ?'?:??'?? ?? ?' ??'-??''?. ?????, ???? ?? ???' ???? ??', ?'? ???? ? '?: ????''? '???, '? ?? ?'' '????.

% ???? ''???'?? ???, ?'????%??? ?'???, ??'?'?? ??? ???, ? ??'???? ?'? ??''?'?? ???'?? ???. ???? ????? '?'???'?? ?????? ?'???' (1974) ?? ????' ??'? ? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???'???? ?+'???? ?????'?? ???', ???'?? ?????+, +'????? ??'????? ????'?? ????'????': ?? ?'?'????' ???'??? ?+'???? ???' ????' ????'? ???' ?????'?. ????? ? ?'????: ?+?': ??????'?? ????'? ?'??, ?''??' ???+??? ?'? ??'? ???, :?'? ? ??? : ?': ????? ?????? ? ?????-'+? ?'???. ' ?''??:, ??+???': ? ?+???? ??? ???? '??'? ?????'??? ? ''???' ???' (1980), ?? ?????' ? ??? ?? ? '?'???? ???'?????'?' ?+?'? ???, ???+?? ??'??, '? ? ???'??'??? ???? % ???? '???, ??'??'? ?'' ?'?'???? '????? ? ????????? ''???' ??? 15. ???? '???, ? ?'? '? ??'? ( ??'?) ? ?+??? ?????'? '??? ?' '? , ?? ?'??? ?'? ??'''??, ? ????, ????, ? ??'??? ?'???'??, ? ????, ??'? ?'?-'????. -'? ? ???''???: ??'? ??'? ???? ?'' ???+????'?? ???'??''???? ''???'.

120 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???' ?'??? ?:???'? ??? ?'????? ??? ?' ? ????'?'?'?? ' ? ?'?? ??: ????? ?' ?? '??, '? ?'??? ? ?????' ???, ? ? ?'? ??''? '?'??? ? ?? +?' ???? ?'?. ? '?' ????? ??? ??'???' ???'? ?'?, ????'?'? ?+ ?????'???? ????? ?'? ('?'? ? ?'???') ??????????'??? '??? ?'?'. ??? ???+? ?? ???' ?????????-??????????? ????'? '???'??? ?'??????????' '?? ??????? ???'?', '??? '?'?, '? ???? ?'?? '?????'??? ??'?'?? '???, ??'??' +?' ? ????''???''??? ???'?'?'???' '?'? ?+'????'. ?? ??', ????, ?'?' ?????'+?'? %'?? ???, ?'?' ?????? ????? ??? ???'?? ????'? ?'? ':, ?'? '' '+? ?'??''? ???'? ? ????, '+? :?'? +' ????'? ? ??''?? ?' ?????? ?'? ?????' '?, ?? ? XVI XVII ??. ?????' ?????: %'???? :??'?????? ??? ????? ? ??'???? ???:?''?'?? ?? ??'??, ???? ?' ?????' ????' '???? ?'????? ? '??, '? :??'???? ?? ?????'?'?? ? ??, ? ? ???'???? ???''??'?. ? ??'?? ??????? ????, ?? ???? ? ?????'????' ????? ???'???' ?'? ?????'? '???, '?, ? ?? ???'????' ' ?'?', ???' '?? ? ?:???'?? ? +?' ????? ??'?? ?? ?????? ? '?+'? ????? '????? ???+???. ?: ???'?'' ???'? '???? ?'?'????? ?'?''?? ? ?'????? ?? ???? '??? '??, ? ??'???? ???'? '?? '?????' ???.

-%'?? ???, ?? ???'?, ?'??', '? ???' '?? ??' ???+' ????%?'? ??? ???? ???????. ??? ????'?' '?? %'??? ???? '???? ???????', ??'??'? ?'?', '? '?????'???%?? ???' ?? ??'?? : ???'???????' ? ?????? ?' ?????'?? ? ?'???? '???'. -'? ? ?+?'', ?'???' ??, ?? ???? ????. ???? ???, ??'???? ????' +?'??? ?? ???????' ???'?? ???, ???'?' ? '??, '? ?? ???? ???': ? ???'???: ?+'???? ??'?' ???'???'??? ?'??'???% ???''??' ????''. ? '?'?'???' ??'', ? ??'??' ??''?'?? ? '???? ??? ?????:, ???? ?+??? ? ??'??'?? ?-'? '???'?'; ??' ?'??'???' ? ???'?'?'? ? '???, ??'???? ?? ?'?' ???'????. ?? ?'???' ?'??? ? ???: ?'?'?'??: ?+?':, ????'' ?? ? ???%?' ? ???? ????'???' ? ????'????? ???. (-' ????????? ?'?'? ? ''??'???? ????????'' ??: ???': ?+'???? ??'?'?? ?'?'???? ? ???????': ????????'?: ?'?'??, ?? ?????':, '? ????:, :?'? ?? '????'???'?? ? ? ?'?? '?? ? ?? ?'?? ??? ? ?? ??+?' ?????, ???? ' ??????.)16

-'? '? ??'?? '?????'???': ???':'. ''??? ???+'? ???? ? '??'???? ???'???????'' ?' ????'?'??, ????'??????'?? '.?. '? ??'?'?? : ?'?????? ???? ?? ?'??' ????'? : ?? ???'???'?? ?: ?'? ?'??' ''???? ??+:???'?'. ' ???'?''????', ?-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 121

' ? ?'?' ???, '?+? ?': ??'??? ' ? ????'??? ?? ?????, ' ??' +''? ?????? ? +???%?.

?????, ?', ?'?'????, ????, '? ??? ???'?''??? ?????'??? ????????. ???' '?, ? ???? ?'??, ?? ?????? ? ''???'? ?+%?'?????, ???'??' ??? ??+?? ?'?'????''''. -'?, ?? ???? ???, ??'?'?? ??'????''???? ????????; ??? ?????'?'?' ?? +?'??? ???'??'? +'????? ????? ?'??? ???'???? '???. ????????, ??+?'?' ??, '? '??? ?'? ?'' ??+?? ???' ??????????????' ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ???????'? ? ???'???%? ???'?', ?? ? '??? ?? ?????'?? '?, '? ?:?''?' '?? '????' ??'???? ?' ?? ????'???'???'?, '? ???????. ? ??%?'??' '????? ?????? ? ?'????? ????'?'????? ?'??'. ?? ??', '? ?+ ????? ???????? '?? ? '?+?? ?'? ??'? ?'?? ??'?, '? ?? ?????? ?'?? ? ?'???? ???????'???? ??'?''. ???'???, ???? ''???'' ?+?%?'?? ? ???, ?? ?+?%?'?? ?+%? '???? ? ??, ?????'????, ?? ???? ??? ??'? ??? ?+?' ??+???????' ???? ??? ??' ???? ???? ??+?'??. ????  ? ??? ?+?%?'?? ???', ?? ?+?%?'?? '?, ? ? ?? ?+?' ?'??.

??? ? ?'' ?+? ???'??? ????'??? ? ?'' ?+? ?'?'??. ' ???? ?+?' '???' ??????? ??? ? ?'?? ???' (1973) ?? ??? ??'??' ': ???: ??''?-?'?????, ??'??' ?'??' '?? ?' ??? '????? ?????' XVII ?. ????%?'???%? ??'''??? ? ?? ?????? ':??. ?? ????, ??? ?'? ?'? ?????; ? XVII ?., '?? ?' ??? ??'?, ???? '??? ???'????' ??' ?'??'?'??? ?' '?????': ?????+?? ?'?'??'. ??'?'? ?'?'??, ??+?'?' ??, ??'' +' ??????'? ??? ?'???, ?????'??? '?? ??'? ???'??? ? ?+%????''? ?? ????? ???'?'. ' ?+?' '??'? ???' ?????? ???' (1976) ??? ?'?? ???????? ? '??, ? ?' ' ??'?? %' '???? ??? ??? ?'??? ''???'? ??? '????'?': ?'??'??'. ??'??? ???'? ?????'?? ?'?' ?????? ? '??, ???? ?? ?????'???' '??? '?'? ??'? '? ? ?? ?????'?' ???? '??? ??????. ????? ????????'? ?'? '???'????? ?'?' ? ?'?' ??????, ?'???, ?? ???? ???, ??' ???'?'? ??'??? ' ??''??? ?+?????. ????? ?? % ??''?? ?'? ''???'??? ? '?' ?????' ??: ????? ?'?' ???'????' ?'??': ? ??????'.

% ??? ?????? +?????' ???. ??? ? '???, ''???'' ? ? ?'''?? ???'?'??'? ???'? '???, '?+' ???'??? ? ???? ? ?+?' ????''??': ?????'????: ???'????: ?? ? ???'????? ???'???? ??'?? ??, , '? :??'???, '?? ?+??? ?? ???'?? '??'?'? ??'?' ?'? ??-'? ??????? ?' +??? '? ?'??, ?????'??, ?''?

122 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

' ???'???, ??'? ??'???? ? ?????'? ?'? ?????'??. -'? ???? ?'''?? ??'? ?? ? '???, '? ? ?'???; ?? ???, ????? , ? ??'??. ????? ?'? ?'?' ??? ?? ???+'??. ?'? ?' ?????? ?'? ? ?'???? ?????'????: '??? ??', ?????' ??, '? '+?'?? ? ??' +''? ?????-'+? ??????? ???'???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??, ???'??'? ????? '?'???'. ?????'??? '?'??? ????'?'?' ??+?? ?????? '???, ''?''', ?'?'????, ??'??'?? ?????. ?? ????  ?????? ?''?? ??? ? '???? ??????, ???%: ?'?'???? ??'? ? :??'??'?, ??'????? ??? ??:???' ?????'?? ???'??? ?+%? ??, ?? ??'?' +''? ??'????? ? '??  ???? ??'?', ? ???? ??'??'?? ??'?????, ?? ?? ?'???' ? ?+?' '??'? ????'? ? ??'??': ???:' (1978), '???+??'?% '?? ? ???: ? '???', ?' ?? ??'??' ? ?+? ???, ?'? ??'??': '?'' ????' ?'?'? ??????, ?? ??'??' ? ????'??'?? '?'?.

?? ??', ? ??? -?'? '?????? ?' ??'??'?, ????? ? ?????? ????? '+???, ???'?'?' ?????? ?'???? '??? ???????????? ''???' ???'?? ?' ?? ???'?' ?'??' ?? ?'???', '? ???' ?????'?? ? ?'??? '??''?'??': ????'?'??'. ?? ??'??'?? ??'?? ????'??, '????'??%? ??'? '????: ?+%?'? ? ???????? ??'. ' ?'?? ????', ???' ??, '???? ?'?'?? ?'???'?? ???+??? ??????'. ?+? '? ???' ?'?'', ? +??'?'?'' ? ???', ? ????%' ? ??'??' ???'?, '? : '?? ?' ?'? ????'? ??????' ??'???? ??+:?????'.

' ?'? ???, ??'?' ???, ?'???''????'? ????'?'??': ?????? ? ?' ??????? ???; ????%? ? ??%?'???? ???'????? ??? +?'???''???? ?'?' ??'?'?? '???''?' ? '?? ??? ???'?? ??? ?' '?'????? ???'?? ??+'''???? ?'?' ? ????'??: ???'??':'. ????? ? ??'?????? ?'???? ??? ??'?'?? ?'?? ? ???''?. ? ???'? ?????' ?? ???? '???' ?' (??:) ?+??? ? ?'???? ?????? ???'?''??': ????'?'??': ??????, ??? +' ?'???? ?'???''??'? ?' ???'?? ? ?'??'. ??? ??'?'?' ??????? ???+'?? ? '??, '?? ?+?????'? ??'???'; ?? ??'???' '?? ? ???''??'?? '???, '? ?' ?? ???, '? ?????? ? ???????' '???? ?+??????? '? ????' +?'??' ?????'? ??? ??????'?'?? ????'??' ??'? ? ????? ?????'???'. ?''? +''?, '?' '?', '? ??'?? ? ????' +''? ?+??????' ? ????%?? ???'????? '?????? ?'??', ???? ? ???'?', '? ?? ???+% ? ????' +''? ?+??????'. ??? ? ????? ???'?' ? ?'????? ?????'?, :?'? ?? ' ??????', ??? ????, ???'??? ?????, ???? ??'?? ???' ?''??.

?? ??' ???'?' ? '??  ????'?, ?? ? ????'??? ??? ?????? '?? ?? ''???', ????-'? ?+?'??? ? ???? ??? ???'?-

''? 5'. '? ?'?'?? 123

???'???? ??'?-???????? ''???'. ?? ?'?'??? ''????'??? ??????'' (1967) ?????'???' ???????? ?? ? '????'????? ''???'?'????? '??? ???? ?? ??: ?? '???:. ????? ?? +?'??? ???? ? ?'?? ?'?'?? ? ?' ?'? ? ': ??'??: '?:, ??'??' +?' ??'?? +???' ??'' ? ? ?''??: 1972?'1980 ??., ? '?? ???+'?????': ? ?? ?+???? '???'??'?? ????'?' (1982), ? ?? ???????? ?+?' '?'???'? ??'? ?????'' (1980).

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

?''??, ?????' ??', ????' '?' ??????', :?'? ?? ?? %, ??+???, ??:???' ?????'? ?''??? ?'??'????; ???? ????' ?''???, ???' ? ?? ?' ??? '?'??? ????'?'??'?, :?'? ?? ?? %, ??+???, ?????'?? ? ??????; '?????? ??? ?'??? ???? ????+??' ?? ?' '?? ?, '? ?'?'??? ?' ??????: '??? ??%?'???' '????'?'??' ????''. ?? ??'? ???' ''???'' ??'?' ???????'? ????? ????? ''???' ?' ? ???, ?''?'?? ' ?'??'? ?? ? ????? '??????', ' ??? ?'?????? '??? +??????' ?''?? ?'?', ' ?'????? ??'???'?, ??? ??'? +''? ?? '????'?'??'? ????', ' ??????'??? '?' ????'?'.

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sub specie aeternitatis *?' ?' +?'? ? ?+? +-* ? '?? ??? ????' (''.). ?' ???. ??.

124 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

????? ??. ?? ??', ?' '?'?' ??' '?? '?, '? +?'????'?? ??: ???? ?+??? ?'??? ?' ? ???'????'????'? ?'?'????? ??? ? '??, '? ?? '?? '?????'?' +??'?'??? ?'?', ?' '? ??' ??'?? ?'?'? ?+? ?'?'??. ?+?, ?? ?? ????, ???? '?????? ???', '?, ? +??? ?'? '?, ?' ? ???' +' ?+?'??? ?'?? ' ?????'? ? ?????? ?'? ? ??????.

?'?-'? ??? +' ??''? ??? ?'?? +?' ?+%? ?'??? ? '??, '? ? ''???' ?? % ? ?' ??' ????????'? '?? ??'?', ? ???? ?? ?' ??'? ? ???. ?' ??? '?????????' ????'? ??+'? ? ???? ': ???+'?, ??'??', ??? ? XVII ?. ?', ?''?? '?'??', '? ??' ? ?'? +' ???'?'??. (''?? '??? ? XVII ?. ?'' ????'' ??'; '?' ???'? ???? +''? +' ???'?, '?, ?? ????? ??, ???'??' ?': '?'?: ???+'?' ????'??'?? ? ? ?'??: ?''?? '?-''', '?????' '??'?''. -'? ??'???? ?'? ?'???? ???'???????? ??????? ??'). ?? ??????? ?' ??'?, ?????'' +' ??', ?????'??? ?????? ?' ?????, '? ??? +?'??? ?' ?': '?'?: ???+'?', ? '???' :, ?'+???? ? ?'????? ?? ????????+'?', ???????' '?, '? ?' ?:??? ????'???? ??'?' ???. ?' ?' ??? ? ????%?? ? '??, '? ?'?? ??%???'? ??? ???? '????' % ??? ??%???'? ??? ???? '??', ? ??'???? ???? '?+'?' ???' +'????? ???'????????? ???'??? ? ??????????' ????'?, ?'?+??%: ??, '? ?' ???  ?'??'?? ??'???? ??? ?'? ???+'??, ??'??' ???'?'??' '?'???'?' ?' ?'? ?'??? ??' ??' ? ?'???? +???', '?+' ???????'? ?? ?''??'? ?''??.

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

?' '?-'? ??+:????, '? ?'?, ????, :????? '?'?' ? ?'???-'???????? ??:. ' ????? ''???'?? ??' ??' ?'??, ?????%?? '?'???'?', ??'??%?? ???? ??+?'???'? '???''', '? ??'? ??????%?? ''???'? ????'? ? ?+? ?+?', ??'??' ??' : ? ???? ?'??. ????+?????? ?' ?': ?+???, ?? ?????' ??? +???????'? ?' ????? ''???'. ''???'??, ?%?%? ?' ??'?? '?-

''? 5. '? ?'?'?? 125

'???'', ?'?' ????? ? ?? ' ????????, ? ? ??'?? ' ??'??. ?? ? ???'?' ???? '?'?: ???+'?' ?' ?? ????? ??, ?'? ? ? ?? ??:. ????, ?? ?+?' ?? ?'+???'? : ?' '? , ?? ? XVII ?. ???? ''???'' ?'+???' '?'??? ???'? '???, '?+' ?'''??? ???'?'? ???' ???? ??'?'? '?'????? ???+'?? ' ?? ???? ??????'?? ?+?'? '?'???? ?????''.

'?  ? '??? ?'? ''???' ??'?'?? ?''?, ???? ?? ????', ?? ????+??'? ?+? ?' '?'???''? ??' ? ????'???? ???''??? ???'?' ? ????'?, ? ' ??, ???? '?? ??'?? ?' ? ???+????' ???'? ?' +'' ?'??? ???????? ??'?'??'. ???'????'? ''???', ??%? ??? ??+?? '? '???? ??, '? ''???'? ??'? ????'? ???, ???' ? '?? ? '???, ?????' ??, '? ???%? '???? ? ??'?'?? '??? ??'??'?? ''?'???' ??'?, ?+ ?'''?'?'??': ???+????'?: ??'??': ?' ?+ : ??'?????' :??''??? ?????'??? ? ??'?'? '????, ??'???? ???'?, ?'??? ?'??'?'???, ???'???'? ?????? '???? ?' ?? ?????' ? ??'??? ??'? +'????'?????', '? ???'?' ????:. ' ?': ??' '?? ?????' ???? ?????? ??+?? ?' ?? ???' ???? '??'' ?????', ? ??'???? ??????'?' ????? ?''??. ' ?'' ?' ??', '?? ? ???'? +'' ??'?? ?'?'??? ?' ?'???? ?''????????? ?'? ??? ???'?? (??????) ''???'??. ?? ???? ?? ??' ?+ ?????'?, ???, ???', ??'?'??, ??''?, ?+%?'?, ?+????, ?? ????', ???? ??'? +''? ''???'?.

????'?? ??????' ?'? '?'???'??', ??'??'? ? ????% ????? ??''??, '?'? ??', ??'?'?? ?'???? '???? ??????. '?'???''' ???'?' ?''?, '? ??'???? ?????'?, ? ?-'? ??????%? ?????'? ???'??, ?' ?'? ''???' '??  ??, ??? ?' ?'? ??? ???????'; ?? '????' ?+ ?????, ?????': ? ?'?? ?'????, ?'??'?? ??'? ? ?: ?' ?????+???'. ??'??%? ? ''???', ???'??? ??', ????? ????? ?' ??' ?????%?%??? ??????. (????'?? ??'? ''???' ?' ?????? ?'?' ''???'', ??+???' ???' ??'?? ?????? ????? ? ?+???? '?'??'' ?'????'' (1983), ?' ?'????' ?:???' ?????' ???'? ?????'-'????? ?'??, ??+?'?? ? '??? , '? ?? ??'?'?? ??'?? ????? ?????.) ' ????? ?????''???? ???? ''???', ?????'' ??', '' ??'?? ? '??, '? '?'???'?' ??' ??????'??? ?????' ??'???'? ???'??'???? ???????, ??'?, ???', ??'??' ??' ?'? ?'? ???? ?:???%???? ?? ''???'. ?? '?'?? ??? +?'??, '? ??' ''???'-???'??'??, ?' ?'? ??'???'? ???', ??'?, ??'??' ???'???'?? ? ?????'??? '??? ??''????', ?????', ? ??'??': ?' '??? ??''????' ?'??, ???? ?:??'?? ? ????????? '????'????' ?'? ??'?.

-'?, ?????, ?'?? ? ?'??? ? ''???'. '?' ??'? ?-

126 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'?? ?'? ? ???'?'?' '???', ?' ?', ???'???, ?' ????'???, ????+??? ???': ?????+?? ???? ?%?. '???' ??? ??' '?-'? ???? '?????'?? ???-'+? ?+?????', ???-'+? Bildung *. ????? ? ?'?? ????' ??' ?+?%'?? ? ?????'? 19. ???'???? ? ?'??' ?''? ????? ???'??'???, ???'?? , ? ??: ''?'?, ? ??'??'?, ? ?'' ?' '??:, ????. ????, ?'? ???''?, ? ??: '???, ??'?'? '???? ? ??'?'??, ?+????????? ? ??'?'' ???' ???'??'??, ??'?'? ??????'??? ????? '?? ??????, ??%?, ??? ?????+? ??'???'????'?? '??? ?? ?????+???'? ??????. ' ?:????? ??'?' ??? ????-'? ??'?' '????, ??????? - ???' '?'??.

'? ? ?'?? ??'? ????'?'?? ????' ?'?'? ' '???'??'??: ????'?' ???+??? ? ????'?? ? ?'??? ?+????? +?' ???? ????, ? ???? ?? ??' ??+?'?? ????'??'?'? ? ???: ???: ????'?. (???'?''??? ??????'????? ??'? ?' ?' ??'?????'? ??????: ''???'?? ??:??'? ? ????'? ?? ?? '???, ?? ?? ?'????'?? ?'??.) '?' '???, ????'?, ??'??'? ?? ??'?', ?' ?'? ? ????'? ???, ?'???''??? ?'???? ???%??? ????'? ?'???? ?'?', ???? ?????? +?' '??''??'?' ????'? '??? '??. ? ????????? '?'?: '?'???'? ??'? ??'??'??? +''? ??''????' ? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???'????'??. ??'?, ?? ?'??? ??', ????+? ??+???'', ?' ? ??? ???'??? ???'? ? ?? ????'?'??%?? ?'?? ?+%?? '???. ??%?'??' ????? ??': ??:?'??':, ? ???'???? '?? ???, ???'?????. ????? - : ????+?? ??? ?' ????'???'? '???, '? ? ?: ?'? ??-'+? ?+% ?''. ?:???'? ?+???, ?'?? ??'? ?'?????, ??'??' ??:?'???, ? ???'???? '?? ???, ?'??'?'?. ?? ? ????? ?? ???? ?' ????'???'? '???, ?????' ??', '? ?? ?+'??' ???'??'? ?+%? ?????'??? ?' '?'???'.

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

????? 127

???????

????%??

AJP Australasian Journal of Philosophy

APQ American Philosophical Quarterly

BJPS British Journal for the Philosophy of Science

JP Journal of Philosophy

JSL Journal of Symbolic Logic

PAS Proceedings of the Aristitelian Society

PASS Proceedings of the Aristotolian Society, Supplementary Volume

'? Proceedings of the British Academy

PQ Philosophical Quarterly

PR Philosophical Review

RIP Revue Internationale de Philosophie

RM Review of Metaphysics

TLS Times Literary Supplement

N.B. ?? ????????? ?''????? ???'? ?'? ? ??????' ?'' ?''????? ?'????? ???+'????? ' ?'' ?':?? ??'?????? ????????? ???, ? ?????? ? ? ?':, ???? ?''?? +'' ????'?'? (' ?'?'?) ???? ?? +'' ???+'????. ' '?? ? ?'?'?? ??'?'? ?'? ?????? ???+'???????? ??? (?? ?? ??? ? ?'?? ??), ?? ? ??? ???? ??+'??? ? ??? ' ? +?'. ?' ???? ????, '? ?'?-'? ??' ?'?' ? ???? ' ?''??, ??'???, ???'??? ???????? ?', ???+'???? ? ???' ?????? ?'?', ?'? ??+?''??? ??'?'?? ??+???.

''? 1

1 ??'?'? ????? ? ????????? ''???'? ? '?? ??'?'?? ??? ??? ???? ?.?????: ?.''??' '?'???'? ?? ?? ?'?' (Philosophy as It Is. I T.Honderich, M.Burnyeat (eds.), 1979), ????%? ???+???? ?''? ?'??? ??? ? ???????%? ?????'? ????. '?'???'? ? ???'?? ??' ?.'.??? (Ayer A.J. Philosophy in the Twentieth Century, 1982) ?' ?'? ?'???, ?????? ? ??'????? ??:; ??? ??? ????'??' ?? ???? ?????'????? ?????????. '?' ??'?? ?????'?? ???'??': ''???'??, ? ??'??': ????' ?? ? ??? ???, ?'?? ?? ?'???? '?? '''??': ????'?? ????????? ''???'' '. '???''? (Siegm?ller W. Hauptstromungen der Gegenwarts-Philosophie. V. 2,1975). ???+??? :????? ? ?? '?'?? '??? ???'?, '? ????'?? ?+???? ??'???? ????-

128 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???': ????'?? ??'? ???. '''??' '?? ? ''???'' ?.?? (P.Ricoeur. Main Trends in Philosophy) ??'?'?? ??? R????, ?? ??%?'??, ?????'??'??'? ????? ?'??? ???+'?????'? ?'?'???? ????? ? 1979 ?., :?'? ?+?' ?? ?? ???'?? ???'? 1970 ?. ??? ??? ???? '???????? ''???'?: ???'? ?+??' (Contemporary Philosophy: A New Survey. 1981) ??' ??? ????? ??????????? ??''?' ''???' ????+?? ???'??%? ???? ?' '?'???' ? ???? ?'?''?' (Philosophy in Mid-Century, 1958) '????????? ''???'' (Contemporary Philosophy, 1968) ?' ????' ??'??? ?+?? ????? ''???' ? ??': ????+??': ?+'?'?:. ??? ?.. '?? '???????? ''???'?' (Lacey A.R. Modern Philosophy, 1982) ????'?'?' ??+?? ??'?'??? ???? ? ?'?'??' ???+'?' ????????? +?'????? ''???'. ??. '?: Contemporary Analytic and Linguistic Philosophies I E.D. Klemke (ed.), 1983. ??? ??? '. . ''?? '??????? ?? ?????? ''???' ? 1945 ???' (Burr J.R. Handbook of World Philosophy Since 1945,1980) '??? ???'?' ?????. ?? ??'?'?? ??'?'? ????? ? ???'???? '??????? ''???'?.

2 ????? ????: ??'???': ?+'?'?, ??'??' ? ??'?'?? ??? + ?????, ??'?'?? ''???'? ?'?. ??.: Contemporary Philosophy of Religion I S.Cahn, D.Shatz (eds.), 1982 (? ++'???'? ?? 1965?'1980 ??.) ? ???'???%? Mackie J.L. The Miracle of Theism, 1982. ?+ ?'? ? '?? ??.: Hudson W.D. A Century of Moral Philosophy, 1980. ??'? ?? ? ??? '???'??? ?'?'?' (Hare R. M. Moral Thinking, 1981, ?'?? ++'???'?) ?? % ??????', '? ''???'? ???' ??'?'?? ''???'???? '?????, ????? ?? ???'??' ? ????????'??????? ???' ?'''??. ? ??+???'' ??., ? ?????: Wallace J. Virtues and Vices, 1978; Foot P. Virtues and Vices, 1978; Maclntyre A. After Virtue, 1981; (' ? +?' '?'?????? ??:) Geach P. T. The Virtues, 1977. ' ??'? ????? ? +?' ?+????? ?+'?'? ??.: Singer P. Practical Ethics, 1979.

3 ?'??' ??+?'?, '? ?+%? ?????? ?????'??: '????? ? ??'????????? ?? ????? ?'? ??^ ?????? ? '? ??????, ???? ????+?' '???' ?'??'? ?+??? ?????%'?? %' ???'???? ??'??. ?? ? ?? ?'? ????: ?'???? ?': '????? ?? ?: ??? :??'?? ?'? ????'???'??? ???'?, '? ' ' ?' ??'??' ?'??-?????''? ????? +'' ??+??', ? ????'? ????'?? ? ?+?'???? ???'???'. ???'??? ?? ????? ??:? ?' '???' ???? ?:?'?'?'. '?' ???'??' ?????'?? ????????' ????? ? ???????? ????'???'?? ????'. ??., ? ?'???', ? ?'?? 2, ???. 5 ?+ ?'?'????. ???? '???, ?+'?? ??''?'?? '? ? '???? '????'' ??'??? '??? (1947, ??'???? ????? 1971) '???' ???? '?'??? '??, ? ???+????' ? ?? '??'??? ?'????? ????'

????? 129

(1923, ??'???? ????? 1971), ?' ??'???? ?? ????'??'? ?'????. '?? ?? ?' '?, '? ?????' ?': ??? ????'?? ?????, :?'? ?'?? +?' ??? ?????' +???': ?+?' '???. ??'? '?? ?' ???? ?''', '? ?'?' ??'?'?? ?'??'?? ????'???? ?? ??'?????' ???'??? ? ?'?'?? ?''?. ?? +' '? ? +''?, ??.: Luk&cs Revalued l A.Heller (ed.), 1983. ???? ??'???: ???????': ???'?? ????? ??.: Skolimowski H. Polish Analytical Philosophy, 1967. '?' ??'?????'??'? ???' ??'?????? ????? ???' ?: Schaff A. Language and Cognition, 1967. ' ?+?' '.??'????-???? '''??' '?? ?????' (Kolakowski L. Main trends of Marxism. V. 1-3, 1976?'1978) '?'?? ?'??? ??+? ??? ?????. ' ?? ?+?' ''?????' ?????'???? ''???'' ??? ???? '.?'? '.?+? (Issues in Marxist Philosophy I J.Mepham, D.H.Ruben (eds.), 1979) ????????'?? ??'? ????'? ?'?? ? ??????? ? ''??+?'?. ?? ?' ?+?'' ?? % ????%?'???? ??'??'?? ?????-?. ??. '?: Marx and Marxisms I G.H.Parkinson (ed.), 1982; The Varieties of Contemporary Marxism I TJ.Blakeley et al. (eds.), 1983. ?????'??? ????? ??. ?: Socialist Humanism I E.Fromm (ed.), 1965. ????? ????'?? ?'?' ?????? ?+ ?'???? ????? ? ?'?, ??.: Kamenka E. The Ethical Foundations of Marxism, 1962. -?''??' ?'? ??? ?????'? ???'?? '???, :?'?' ' ?? ?''? ?+? ''???'?. ??.: Callinicos A. Marxism and Philosophy, 1983. ??????? ?? 'Radical Philosophy' ('??'??? ''???'?', 1972) ?'?' :????? ????? ? ????? ???'? ?????????? ?????? ''???'?'?????. ? ???????? ?+%? ''?'??' ?? ?'??? ??????? ???? ???????'?: Avineri S. The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx, 1968; McMurtry J. The Structure of Marx's World View, 1978. ?'???''??? ??, ?+?????:?? ? 1960- ??., ??.: Passmore J.A. The Perfectibility of Man, 1970.

4 ' ?+?' '-?? '???? ?'??'' (1968, ??'???? ????? 1971) ?+??? ??'??', ?'??'? ?+??? ? ?'?????? ?'?, ???''?? ??'??'?? ??''? ''???' ??? ?+?+%???? ???'??'???, '?%???? ?' ??: ?'???': ???+'?', '.. ?' ???+'?, ?????': ? ??'?? ??? ? '?????? ?+%?'? ? ?????? ?'???'?? '????: '????''??': ?'????'. ???? ??'???? '???, ??'??? ???'?'?' ?? ?'??'? ?'?? ? ??'???? ?'?'??'? ??'?'?? ????' '?'????? ?'?????? ???+%?'?', ?+????? ???????': ??'???? ???????, ?? ??+''?' ? ??? ?''?, ??????': ? ??'???? ?'? ??? ???? '???????? ???'?? ?+%?'?' (Habermas J. Communication and the Evolution of Society, 1979). ' ?':  ?''??: ?? '? ?:??' '?? ???????????? ? '??? ??': ?'?? ??'?. ?? '??? ?'? +'' ????????' ??'? ?? ?'????' ?.'?-?''' ? ???' 'Synthese' (1973). ?? ?'? ?'? ?'?'??, ?+??? ?

130 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'?' ??'?', '? +'' ????'??? ????'; ?' ????'? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????, '? ?'? ???'? ????'??. ?+?? ?+??? ? '??, '? ??'? ??'?? ??'?'?? ?'?'???? ?? ''???', ?' ???? ?'????? ?''?? ??? ????:??? ? '??????? ''???' ??'???? '??, ????' ???+'??????? ? 1937 ?. ??'????? ? ?? '??'???? '???' (1968, ??'???? ????? 1972). ? ????'??'???? ???' ? '?? ??.: The Essential Frankfurt School Reader I A.Arato, E.Gebhardt (eds.), 1979; (? ?'?????? ???') Jay M. The Dialectical Imagination, 1979; (? ??'???? ???') Conner ton P. The Tragedy of Enlightenment, 1980. ?'?'??? ? ?+??? ??.: McCarthy T. The Critical Theory of J?rgen Habermas, 1978; Hesse M. Revolutions and Reconstructions in the Philosophy of Science, 1980; Kortian G. Metacritique, 1980; Habermas: Critical Debates I LE.Thompson, D.Held (eds.), 1982; Geuss R. The Idea of a Critical Theory, 1982. +?' ????? ?????? '???'? ???'??'??' (1972, ??'???? ????? 1982) ????'?'?' ??+?? ??'?? ??'??, ????%:?? ? '?????'?? '????'?. '?+?' ??-?? ???-'? ???? +'' ?+?' ?+????'? ????'?''? ????'??'???? ???'', ????? ?? ????? '????'????? '?'? '' ?? ?+'?' ??: ?'????. ?'??' ???????'?, '? ????'??'??? ???' ??'???'?? ?'???' ?'????? ???' ???'?? ???, ?? ?? ????'?'? ? ?+?' ??' ????? '???'??? ?'???' (1929, ??'???? ????? 1936), ? ??'???? ?''?? ??'?? ?'? '?. ??.: Jay M. The Frankfurt School's Criticism of Karl Mannheim // Telos, 1974.

????'?'? ?+ ???????? ???'? ??'?????, ???????': ??? ??? ??+???? ???'?? ???, ??' ?'? ?+?': The Sociology of Knowledge I J.E.Curtis, J.W.Petras (eds.), 1970. ??'??' ???? ???' 'Philosophy of Social Sciences' ('?'???'? ??'??': ???') 1981 ?. ????' ??'?? ???'??: ??'????? ? ?'?? ?+'?', ???+??? ? ??? ? ''???'? ???. '???? ???%? ????'?''?? ? ???'?? ??? ??'??'?? '??? '?? '??? ''??. ??.: Bloor D. Knowledge and Social Imagery, 1976; Barnes B. Interests and the Growth of Knowledge, 1976. ??. '? ?, ?'?? 5, ???. 15.

5 '???'?''???? ++'???'? ?' ???' ? ?????: ? ?'? 17 '?' '' ''???'' ? ?'? 3 ?, '? ??. ???'? '?? '????????? ''???'' ??? ???? '.?.?''??'? (Contemporary Philosophy l J.F.F10istad (ed.). V. l, 1981), ??'??'? ??'???'?? ?????%? ''???' ?'? ''???'???? '???. ? ?'?'???? '???' ??? ??? ???? '.?.?????' ??. ''? '?? ?'?'??? '????' (What is Mathematical Logic?I J.N.Crossley et al. (eds.), 1972) ??' ?'?'? ??'?? ?????, ???+??? ??'?'? ? ??', ?????%???? '???? ??????'; ???'?? '??'??'?? ?? ?'??% ????-

????? 131

??' ?????', ??'??' ???? ?'??'?'? + ????-'+? ????% ???+???. ??''? ? ???' ?????? ?'? ??'??'?? ? ?+?': ?? ''?'?'?????' ?'? ????? ???. ? ???'????'???? ??'?? ??? ??? ?? ?'?'???? '??? ?'?' ??'??? ?+???''? '??? ??? ???? '. '???? '???????'?? ?? ?'?'???? '???' (Handbook of Mathematical Logic I J.Barwise (ed.), 1977).

'? ??'?? ''???'????? '???', '? ???+??? ???????? ?'???% ?+?'': Rescher N. Topics in Philosophical Logic, 1968; Philosophy of Logic l S.Krner (ed.), 1976; Logic and Philosophy I G.H. von Wright (ed.), 1980; Language, Logic and Philosophy l K.Haller, W.Grassl (eds.), 1980; Grayling A.C. Introduction to Philosophical Logic, 1982 (? ?'?? ?+?' ?+???'?? +?'????'?? ?'????, ??'??'? ?' ??'? ???+? ????); Wright von G.H. Philosophical Logic, 1983 (??? ??+??' ?? ?? ?''? ?? ?'?? '?); Handbook of Philosophical Logic I D.M.Gabbay, F.Guenther (eds.). V. 1-4, 1983?'1984.

+?' ?.??? '?'???'? '???' (Haack S. Philosophy of Logic, 1978) +'' ????????' ????'??? ??????? ??'?, ????? ??'?'?? ???'???'? ????? ? '''???'?? ???+'?', ??????' '?????'. ?'?'??? ''???'??? '??? ?' + '???? : ?????? ?' ?+????'?? ???' ?: Essays on Mathematical and Philosophical Logic I J.Hintikka et al. (eds.), 1978; Modern Logic: a Survey I E.Agazzi (ed.), 1980. ??. '? ??????? ?? 'Journal of Philosophical Logic' ('-???' ''???'???? '???', 1972). ?'???'??? '??? ?'??? ??:??' ? ''???'? ?'? '????'??. ??. ?'???% ?+????: Contemporary Research in Philosophical Logic and Linguistic Semantics I D.Hockney et al. (eds.), 1975; Contemporary Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language I P.French et al. (eds.), 1978; Aspects of Philosophical Logic l U.Mnnich (ed.), 1981, a '? ??. ?'?' 3 4 ?.

6 ?+ ?': '????: ?????'?: ??. ???. 8?'11 ? ?'? 17 ? '?'? '' ''???'', ? '??? ?' ???. 20 ? ?'? 12. ??. '? ??' ??''? ?. ? ??'?????? '??? ??. (:?'? ????'??? ???'??? ?+?'?) Haack S. Deviant Logic, 1974. ??'??? '????? ?'??'???'? ??' ??'?????? '???. ?? ?+???' ????+??' ??'?? ???? ? ??????, ', ?'? : ??+''?', ?'? ??'???? ?'??' ???? ????'???'? ? '?? ?'???, ? ???? : ?+'?? ???'??'. ' ?'? ?': '??? ?:???' '???+???'' '???, ??'??' ?'??? ????' ? ??? ?'????? ? ????????: ?' ?+ ?'?? ??. ???. 43 ? ?'? 18 ? '?'? '' ''???'', +?' ????? ?+?? ????: ??+?'?? ? ?'?? ?+'?' ???? ??' ?: Wilson D. Presuppositions and Non-Truth-Conditional Semantics, 1975. ' '?? ??+'? ??? ??????'; ???-'? ????'?'? ? ?: ???? ???'?'? ??: The Logical Way of Doing Things I K.Lambert (ed.), 1969. ?? ?'???'?? ? ?'?? ?+?', '???

132 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

??'? +''? ?????+? ?'? ?'? ? ?'??'????, ????%? ??''? ? ???+??', ?'?'?'??', +???'?'??' ? ???'????' ???'???? ?'; ? ???: ?'?????? '??? ??''? ?'? ??'?'? ?+??? ?'??. ??. '?: GoddardL., Routley R. The Logic of Significance and Context, 1973. ??'????, '? ???? ??+??': ?''?'?? +'' ?+''? ??????, ? '? ??'???? ???? ?''???????? ??+?? ???? ''???'????? reductio ad absurdum. ??.: ???. 8 ? ?'? 8 ? '?'? '' ''???'', '? Routley R. Exploring Meinong's Jungle, 1980 Parsons T. Nonexistent Objects, 1980.

7 ? '?'??'???'' ??.: Ackermann W. Strong Implication // JSL, 1956; Anderson A.R., Belnap N.D. Entailment, 1975; Diaz M.R. Topics in the Logic of Relevance, 1981. ?? ??'????? ??????? ? ????? ??.: Belnap N.D., Dunn J.M. Entailment and the Disjunctive Syllogism // Contemporary Philosophy I G.F10istad (ed.). V. l, 1981 ?'?'??? ?+?'? Meyer R.K. Why I am not a Relevantist, 1978. ???'?'??? ??+?'? ?'??'??? '??? ?'?', '? ?'??'???'?, :?'? ? +?' ?'+?? '??? ?? ???'??? ??'?? ?'? ?'???? ?'??'??, ??'?'?? +'???? 1960-: ??.; ????'??? ?? ?' ??+?'? '???, ??'??? ???+??'?? ? ??? ?+'?'? '????? ?'???. ??. '?: Routley R. et al. Relevant Logic and Its Rivals, 1982.

?'? ?' ???? '???, ???'??? ??'?????/? ?-/? ???' ??'???' ??? ?????? ?'??'??, ?'? ?'??'?? ??+?'?? '??-????'????':' '???. ??.: Rescher N., Brandon R. The Logic of Inconsistency, 1979; On Paraconsistency I G.Priest, R.Routley (eds.), 1985; ??'??'? ???? ???' 'Studia Logica' 1979 ?. % ??? ?'????? ????'??''???? ??? ???' '? ??'? ?+ ?'????????. ??.: Routley R., Meyer R.K. Dialectical Logic, Classical Logic and the Consistency of the World // Studies in Soviet Thought, 1976.

???? '???, ??? ???????'?? ??'? ???''?? '???'??'? ?'????? ?????'????' ? ???'???? ?:??. '?? ?:?+: ???'?' ? '?'???'??: ???????: ???'???? ?:??' (Reichenbach H. Philosophical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, 1944), '? ?'? ???? +''? +' ??''? ? ????%?? '?:???? '???, ? ??'???? ? '?'???' ''???' ? ??'? '?'??? ???????? ?'????'???? ??? ??+?'?'?? '?????'???'. ? +?' ????: ???''?:, ?'? ?????????%:?? ??'??? ?:?+:, ??.: Fraassen van B.C. II Logical and Epistemological Studies in Contemporary Physics I R.S.Cohen, M.W.Wartofsky(eds.), 1974; The Logico-algebraic Approach to Quantum Mechanics I C.A.Hooker (ed.). V. l?'2, 1975; Putnam H. Philosophical Papers. V. 1,1975; Mittelstaedt P. Quantum Logic, 1978. '??? ' ?'??' ???'? '?, '? ??? '?? '???? ????+?? ???'??' '??? ?'???'?? ?+''???'? '??????? '????. ??.: Sommers F. The Logic of Natural Language, 1982. ' ??? ?'????-

????? 133

?' ? ???? ?? ?'? TLS. ?? ?? ??' ?+ %'?? ?: Englebretsen G. Three Logicians, 1981.

8 ??'???? ?'??? ????????? ????? ''???' ??. ?: Bubner R. Modern German Philosophy, 1981, ?? ????'??'?? '??' ??? ? ????????? ??'?-???????? ''???'?. ???+??? ???' ?'?? ?????, ????????? ?? ?'?'? ?''???? ?????. ' 1978?., ???? ???:??' '????? ???'??? ?? ''???' ? '???'????', ? ?' ??? ?'???'' ??????' ?????'?? ? ??????? ????? '?? ???'? '??????????? ???'?'. ??%?'????, '? ???'? ?????'? ?'?????? ????? ??? ?'?+?' +'' ?? ?+????? ???????'??, ? ''???'??. ??. ?? ?+?'': Albert H. Traktat ?ber kritische Vernunft, 1968 Albert H. Pl?doyer f?r kritischen Rationalismus, 1971. ???? ????? ??'?' ???'???'? ??? ??????? ????'?''?? ????'??'???? ???'', '? ?'??? ?: The Positivist Dispute in German Sociology I T.Adorno et al. (eds.), 1969, ??'???? ????? 1976. '? ???? ? ?'?? ???, ??????? '.???+, ?? ????? ?+??. ??. '?: Radnitzky G. Contemporary Schools of Metascience, 1968 ?? ?''? (???? ??? ?'????''? ??''?), ?????: Radnitzky D. From Justifying a Theory to Comparing Theories and Selecting Questions // RIP, 1980. ?''? '???''? ??? ??' ? ??'????? ?'? ? ?? ?+????: Stegm?ller W. Collected Papers, 1977. ??. '?: Lenk H. Metalogik und Sprachanalyse, 1973. ???'??, +??'????, ?' ??'??? '??? ?''???? ''???'. -???' 'Erkenntnis' ?'???'' ??'??'? ???? ? 1983 ?., ?????%??'? '???''??.

'? ??? ?+'??'?? ??'?%? ?'?? ? ''???'???, '? ?+?'???? ?'?? ? ???????? ??'??? ? ????-'? ?? ? '???. ?? ? ??, :?'? '???' '???? '?? ???? ? ??'?-??????? ''???'?, ? ???? ?+?' '???????? '?????? ''???'?' (1979, ? ??'????? ?????: Descombes V. Modern French Philosophy, 1980), ?+'??%? ??''?? ? ????? ''???'?, ?? ? ?' ???'? ???????'? ? ?????? ??'?-????????? ?'?'''?. ' ?'?? ?'? ??? ?''? ???'??' ? ???????'?? ?'? ????? '?+?? ?? ????????? ????? ''???', :?'? ? ????: ?'?????: ?' ??? ?????'??'. ??. '?: Philosophy in France Today I A.Montefiori (ed.), 1983, ??? ??'?? ?????????? ?''?? -? '????: Bouveresse J. Why I am so very unFrench.

?''?????? ''???'? ?? +?'??? ?' ????? ? '????-???? ?'???? ???+??? ?'?'?? ???????+'??? ? ??????. ?? ? ??, ? ?'' ? ????-'? ?? ??'?'???'?? ??'?-??????? ''???'? ???. ??., ? ?????, ???' 'Epitemologia' (1978); Studisul problema del sighiflcato E.Agazzi (ed.), 1979; M.Dalla Chiara. Italian Studies

134 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

in the Philosophy of Science, 1980; Fera M. Apologia del Metodo, 1982. ? ?????????? ''???' ??.: Scandinavian Philosophy Today I R.E.Olsen, A.M.Paul (eds.), 1972.

8 ????, '?, R??? ????, '? ? ??'?? ?'??? ?+?'?' ?????' ?''??: ''???'??. ??. ???' 'Monist' 1982?.

? '????????? ???'??''???? ?''???? ''???''. ?'?? ? ??? ??'???'?? - ??%?'????? ????': ??'?': ''???'??: '???. ??., ? ?????: Contemporary Indian Philosophy I M.Charterjee (ed.). Series 2, 1974 ???' 'Indian Journal of Philosophy'.

9 -???' ?????:' ???+'???'?? ? ?+'???? ?+???? ??? ???? .'?+?? ??. ''????'? ?'?'?' (Hermeneutik und Dialektik / R.Bubner et al. (eds.), 1970), ????? ? ?'? ?'?''????? '?????'?????' ''???' ?.'.'???, ? ???? ?''? ???'??? ?'?', '? ? '??? '?' ?'?' ? '? ??'???? ???? ?'???'?'?'?? ? '????? ??'????. ???? ??? ?? ???' ?: Tugendhat E.. Traditional and Analytical Philosophy (??'???? ????? 1982).

''????? '?'??? ????:? '???:?? ? ???' ???'''? XIX ?. ?????'? ?'' ?'???? ++'?????? '?'?????, ???????'? ?????'? ??? ????'????? ?????? '??'. ??. ?? ?''? '???' ? ??: Schleiermacher F. Hermeneutik / H.Kimmerle (ed.), 1959. ''? ''??'?? ''?'? ?????'? ?' ?'???? ? '??? ??? ?'?'?????, ??'??? ?????? ? ? ?'?'????, ? ???: ? '??? ??'??? ?????'?'?? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? '????. ??.: Dilthey: Selected Writings/?..Rickmann (ed.), 1976 Wilhelm Dilthey

1 H.P.Rickmann (ed.), 1979; Makkreel R. Dilthey, 1975; Ermath M. Wilhelm Dilthey, 1978; Plantinga A. Historical Understanding in the Thought of Dilthey, 1980. '???, ?????? ? ??????, ????' ?'?? ?????? ?????'? ?? '?+': ??: ?'???'? ??'', ??'??'?, ?? ?? ?'???', ???? ?'? ??'?'' ??? ????'???' ? ???? '?? ?'???'. ' ?'???? ?'? ?? '?????' ???' ?'?'?? ? '?????'?? ???' '??', ?? ? ?'?? ?'?? ?? % ??:???'?? ?' ?? '??? '?? ??? '??'?? ??'??%?'. ??.: Gadamer H. G. Truth and Method, 1960 (??'???? ????? 1965). ????'?'' ????'??'???? ???'' ??'???' '??? ?+?'? ??? '???, ?? '? ? ?? ??'?' ????'??' ?? ? ? ???? ?' ??'??, ??.: ApelK.O. et al Hermeneutik und Ideologiekritik, 1971.

???? ?'??'' ??? +'' ???'?'? ??? ?????? ? ??'?-???????? ??, ? ?????'? ?'' ?'???'??? '? ? +?'??? ???'?. ????? ?'? ??'??? ?????'? ?? ?'???' '??'?? ' ?????'? ''?'?, ? ???????'?? '????? ???''? ??''? ? ???+%?? ''???'? +'????? ???, ???'??? ??'????? '?+?? ??'' ?'? '???'?'. ?+ ?'?? ?????'? ??.: Palmer RE. Hermeneutics,

????? 135

1969. ??. '?: Philosophical Hermeneutics/O.E.Linge (ed.), 1976; Bleicher J. Contemporary Hermeneutics, 1980; Thompson J.B. Critical Hermeneutics, 1981; Taylor C. Interpretation and the Sciences of Man// RM, 1971. '? ??? ? ?????'? +'' ???:??' ?.????. ??.: Ricoeur P. Interpretation Theory, 1976; Ricoeur P. Conflict of Interpretations, 1969 (??'???? ????? 1974); Ricoeur P. Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences, 1981 (c ++'???'?). ? ???? ?? ??.: Ihde D. Hermeneutic Philosophy, 1971; (?'?'???) The Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur I C.E.Reagan, D.Stewart (eds.), 1978; Studies in the Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur l C.E.Reagan (ed.), 1979 (? ++'???'? ?? ??? ?? ??'??). ? '?'?????? ??'?? ?????'?, ??????%? ? ?+ ? ??????, '?'?'??, '??-? ''???'?? ??.: Thiselton ?. ?. The Two Horisons, 1980. ????'?? ?'???' ? ???'??'? ??''?? ? ?????'??, ?? ? +?'??? ?? ? ??'?-???????? ?? ??? ?: Wright von H. Explanation and Understanding, 1971. ??. '? ?????'? ?+???? ?''?: Essays on Explanation and Understanding I J.Manninen, R.Tuomela (eds.), 1976. ?+???? '??'??? ???'???' ??? ???? ?.?????'?? (Critical Sociology I P.Connerton (ed.), 1976) ????' ?'??? ?+?' ?? ''???'?? ?????'?, '? ????'?''? ????'??'???? ???''. ??. '?: Howard R.J. Three Faces of Hermeneutics, 1983. ?''?? ? ?????'? .?.?'?? (Palmer R.E.) ?? ?'???? '?? '????????? ''???'' (Contemporary Philosophy I G.F10istad (ed.)) ????' ??'??? ?+????? ++'???'?. ??. '?: Hermeneutics, Questions and Prospects I G.Shapiro, A.Sica (eds.), 1984.

10 ??'? ?+??? +'?? ?'??' ???? ? ?????. ??'? ???' ???? ? ??? (1975, ??'???? ????? 1981) ?'?' ???? ??? Trans-zendentalpragmatismus ('??????''??'? ????'???), '? ?????' ? ?'????? :??'?. ' ???? ?+?' '????'???? ''???'' (Apel ?.?. Transformation der Philosophie, 1973), ??'???? ?'? ?''? +'' ?????' ? ??'???? ?'? ??' ??? +?' ??????'? ???? '? '???'??? ''???'' (Apel?.?. Towards Transformation of Philosophy, 1976), ?? ? ???'???? ????? ?'??'?' ?????'?? ? '??, '? ''???'? ??' +''? ???+???? '?? ?+???, '? ?? ?'?' ??????? ?'? ???%?'?'?? ????, ?? ?? ?'?? ? ?'?'' ????? '??????''????? :??'? ? ????'' ??'??'? ???? ??'? ?? ?? ??:. ? ?'?? '?? ??? ?? ????'??' ''???'?? ?? ' ???? ??? '??''??? ''???'? ?'? ??? ? ??:' (Apel ?.?. Analytical Philosophy of Language and the Geisteswissenschaften, 1965,??'???? ????? 1967). '? '?? ???????'?? ??'? ? ????????: ??? ? ??? ?.?'?+?' '???????''??' ??'' (Albert H. Transzendentale Traumereien, 1975). ?? +?'??? ?' ??'?-??????? ''???'? ???'???'?? ? '??, ? ? ??-

136 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'??' ???, ??'?'? ??'??? ????: ????'?'?? , ? ????? ?'??, ???????. ????? ?'?? ???'?? ? '?'??? ? ??'?'' ??????? ?????. ????? ???. 36 ? ?'? 20 ? '?'? '' ''???'' ??.: Readings in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences I M.Brodbeck (ed.), 1968; Explanation and the Behavioural Sciences l C.Borger, F.Cioffi (eds.), 1970; Ryan A. The Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 1970; Maclntyre A. Against the Self-images of the Age, 1971 ; (?? ) After Virtue, 1981 ?''?: Maclntyre A. The Proper Study (Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures, 4, 1971); Winch P. Ethics and Society, 1972; Gellner E. Cause and Meaning in the Social Sciences, 1973; The Philosophy of Social Explanation I A.Ryan (ed.), 1973; Keat R., Urry J. Social Theory as Science, 1975; Rational Action I R.Harrison (ed.), 1979; Rationality and the Social Sciences I S.I.Benn, G.W.Mortimore (eds.), 1976; Elster J. Ulysses and the Sirens, 1979. ' ??? '?'???'? ?+%?'?' ??? ??. .':'? ?..'????? (The Philosophy of Society I R.Beehler, A.R.Dregson (eds.), 1978) ?????'????'?? ?'????', ?????% ?? ?????? ??? ??? ''???'? ??'??': ??? '??'???? ???'???; ? '??  ?? ?' ? ?+?': Ullman-Margalit E. The Emergence of Norms, 1977. ??. '?: Action and Interpretation I C.Hookway, P.Pettit (eds.), 1978; Thomas D. Naturalism and Social Science, 1979, ????? ? +?'??? ?'?? ''?'??', ?????? ? ???'??%? ???? ? ???. 3 ?'?.

11 ? '? ???? ???? '?'??? ???'?? ???''? ???? '?? ? '?' ???'? ??'?''? ? +?'???: ?????'': ?'??? ???'?????'?. ??'??, ???? +'' ''???'', ??'??' ? ???'?'?? ? ?'?? ??'???? ?????, ?????, '..???? ? ???'??? '.?.????' ? '?????, ?? ??:??? ? '??'??. ?'?? ? ????' ???+??? ?'???. ?? ??' ?? +'?? ??? ??????, ???%' '? ''???'?? ??' ? ?:, ???? ?'? +''? ?'?? ? ? ???, ???? ????''?? ? ?''? ??'?????? '?. ????? ''???'' ?'?'? ???'???''??? ?' ???'? '??. ??.: Findley J.N. Hegel, 1958, '? (?''??????? '?) Findley J.N. The Discipline of the Cave, 1966 Findley J.N. The Transcendence of the Cave, 1967. ' 1970- ??. ?'?' ???' ??? ?????' ?+?' '?'?, '? ????????'+?? ??'???? ?'? ???'?? (1975). ??. '?: Hegel l A.MacIntyre (ed.), 1972. ' ?''? ???'?? '??? ???' (Taylor Ch. Theories of Meaning // '?, 1980) ??'??'?? ??'?-??????? ???'?, ???'????? ? ????' ??'??? ?'????', ? ??? ????? ????'???? '??, ??%? ?' '??? ?? ??????.

12 ?+?'' ???? ? ?+'?'? ??'????? ????'???? ' ??-', ? ??'??': ?? ????' ?'??. '????? ?%?' -?'?? ???'?? (QuintonA. The Nature of Things, 1973) ?'?' ?????? ??????? ?''????? ?'?'?? ? ???: ?''???? ''???'. ?+?' ??-

????? 137

?, ??' ??????? ?+ ??'???'? ?? ??''??? ''???' +'????? ??? '???:?, ???????'?? ?'???' (Nozick R. Anarchy, State and Utopia, 1974), ??'?? ?'?? ??????? ???'? ''???'??: '? ? ?+?' '?'???'?? ?+??????' (Nozick R. Philosophical Explanations, 1981). ?????'? ? % +?'??? ??:?? '???'' ?? '?????''???? ''???'' ??? '??? +??', ?? ??'?? ?'??, ????? ?? ????? '????. ' :??'???? ?'? ???? ???? ?'' '??'' ??'?? ? ???'?. ????'?'? ? ???' ???????': ??'?-??????: ?''??: ?'???? ?' '??''? '?? '???????': ??'????? ?? ''???'' (Midwest Studies in Philosophy. V. 4,1979). ??? ?.????+'' '?''?' (Campbell ?. Metaphysics, 1976) ?'?' ??'?'? ????? ? '?'  ???? '?.

13 ?''?? '''?? ???? ????'? ? ?+???? ??? ??. ?.?.'?'-''? '-?? ???' (Knowledge and Belief I A.P.Griffiths (ed.), 1967), ?? ?? ???%? ? ???'??' +?' ???:, ??? ? ??? ?'???, ??'????? ?? ?'?? '?. ? ?'????? ? +?? ???'?'?? ???? ???'? ??: Essays on Knowledge and Justification I G.S.Pappas, M.Swain (eds.), 1978. ??  ?????'?? ?????+?? ++'???'?, ??'???, ???' ? '?, ???? +?''??. ? ?'? ????: ??? ?? '?????'? ???'??'????? ???+'??, ?:?''??%? +?' ?????? ?+'?'? ? ?????????? ??, ?'????'??: Chisholm R. Theory of Knowledge, 1966; Chisholm R. The Foundations of Knowing, 1982; Aune '. Knowledge, Mind and Nature, 1967; DantoA. Analytical Philosophy of Knowledge, 1968; Knowing/ M.Roth, L.Galis (eds.), 1970; Problems in the Theory of Knowledge I G.H. von Wright (ed.), 1972; Barman G. Thought, 1973; Empirical Knowledge I R.Chisholm, R.Swartz (eds.), 1973; Lehrer K. Knowledge, 1974; French P.A. et al. Studies in Epistemology // Midwest Studies. V. 5,1980. ?'???'' ?? % ?????'?' ??'??? %'?? ??'??? ???'?. ' ?'???' ??.: Unger P. Ignorance, 1975; Williams M. Groundless Belief, 1977; Rescher N. Scepticism, 1980; Cornman J. W. Scepticism, Justification and Explanation, 1980. ????'??? +?'?? ???'?? ?''?' '?, '? ??-?????? +'' ??? ????''??? '??? ??????'?. ??.: Mackie J.L. Problems from Locke, 1976; Jackson F. Perception, 1977. ???+'??%? ? ????????? ???'??'?? '????'???? ??:?'??' ?''? ????' '??'?? ?'???'. ??., ? ?????: Dretske F.I. Knowledge and the Flow of Information, 1981. ' ??'? ?+%?? ????? ? ???'??'???? ?????? ??. ????? ?+???? ?': '? ? ?+???? ??? ??. '.?????'?? ''?????' '???'??' (Perception and Identity I G.Macdonald (ed.), 1979), ?? ?'?????? '??? ??' ???, '? ??.: Evans J.L. Knowledge and Infallibility, 1978; O'Connor D.J., Carr B. Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, 1982.

?+%? ?+??, ????'??%? ??? ??? ???'??'????? ?''??? ???????, ???' ?: Schlesinger G.N. Metaphysics, 1982.

138 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?' ???? '?-'? ???%??, '? ?????'?'? ?'? ??' ?+?': Shope R. ?. The Analysis of Knowing: a Decade of Research, 1983. ? '?'??'' ???'??'?? ??.: Quine W. V. The Roots of Reference, 1974.

14 ?? ????'???? ??'?? ????????' ? ?? ?''? '??'??? '??? ?????', ??'???? ???% ???? ??' ? ?? ??? '????? ?????' (Armstrong D. The Causal Theory of Mind II Armstrong D. The Nature of Mind, 1980). ?:???' ? ?'??'??'?? '.?.'????? ?: Lewis D.K. An Argument for the Identity Theory // JP, 1966. ??. '?: Mediin B. Ryle and the Mechanical Hypothesis // The Identity Theory of Mind I C.F.Prestly (ed.), 1967; Bradley M. C. Sensations, Brain-Processes and Colours IIAJP, 1963 (????? ? ??  ('???') ??'???? ??? ? ???? ???' '?'???'? ???'? ?'?' ? AJP 1964); Campbell ?. Body and Mind, 1970; Rorty R. Mind-Body Identity, Privacy and Categories ( '? ?? +?' ???? ?????'?? '?'?????' ? ??? '?'???'? ??'? ?????'' (Rorty R. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, 1980)). ???? '???, ??. ???? '?????? ?.

?'??'?? ?'? ????'???? ???'?' ?''?? '??'?? '?????? ''??'??, ??????? ???'' (Davidson D. Actions, Reasons and Causes /UP, 1963), ?????? ?: Davidson D. Essays on Actions and Events, 1980, ?? '? ????'?? ??'? ?' ????'?????? ????'? '?'''???'. ?'?' ? ?'? ??'?? ????'???? ?' ? '????? ?????'. ? ?'?? '? '? ?'????'??: Grice H. P. The Causal Theory of Perception // PASS, 1961; Pitcher G. A Theory of Perception, 1971. ??. '?: Causal Theories of Mind I S.Davis (ed.), 1983. '?'??' ????'???? ????? ??'???'??. ??., ? ?????, ??? ?.??'? (Nagel T.) ? '?'?'?'???? '??? ?????' (Armstrong D. A Materialist Theory of Mind) ? PR 1970?. ?.'. ??? ? ???? '?'???' ? ???'?? ?'?''' ??????? ???? ??'?' ?'? ????'?????? ?'???': ??'?. ??. '? +?' ?????? ''?'??? ?? ?'?'?? ? ???. 40?'42 ? ?'? 20 ? '?'? '' ''???'' ?? ???'??'?? ? ???. 13 ? ??'??%? ?'?. ? ?? '?? ?????'? ??. '? ?'?'' ?????? ? ?????? ???'?? '?'-'?? ? 'Pacific Philosophical Quarterly' 1981 ?. ?''?? '.'???'?? '???'? ??''???' (Goldstein L. Scientific Scotism // AJP, 1983), ?? ????'?'?? ???? ????'???? ? ?''???? ?''???? ?????'?? ?+???? ++'???'? ?+?' ?''?? ?+ ?????'?:. ????'???? ??+''?' ???? '??? ???': ????? ?: Armstrong D. What is a Law of Nature? 1983. ?+%? ?+?? ??'????? ?? ???+'? ????? ???, ???? ??'??': +???' ?????'??' ?, '? ???'?'?'???%?? ++'???'? ?' ???' ?: Armstrong D. Recent Work on the Relation of Mind and Brain // Contemporary Philosophy. V. 4. ? +?' ???: ??'?????: ?? ???+'? ?????'? ??.: Universals and Particulars I M.Loux (ed.), 1970; Loux M. Recent Work on Ontology // APQ, 1972.

????? 13

15 '? ??'?? ???, '? ??.: (? ????? ??) Ransey P.P. The Foun dations of Mathematics, 1931, ????? ? ????'?''??'? ?'?'? ???+'?????'? ??? ???? 'Foundations' (1978), '?: Prospect for Pragmatism I D.H.Mellor (ed.), 1980. ? ??+?'???' '???' ?''??; +?'??? ?'?? ??' ???. ??.: Mellor D.H. The Matter of Chance 1971. ? ????' '??'' ??.: Dowries R.t Stea D. Maps in Minds, 1977 '.??' ???'?' ??? ????'???? ? '??? ?+??? ''???'? ?. ??. '? ?'?? 15 ? '?'? '' ''???'' ?'?'???? ?.

16 ????'?'?' ??+?? +?' ????? ???' ?? ??? '????'?? ? ????'???'????-?????? ????'????'?' (Wiggins D. Identity and Spatio temporal Continuity, 1967). ??. '? ?''? ?: Identity and Individuation M.K.Munitz (ed.), 1971; Personal Identity I J.Perry (ed.), 1975; ( ???+??? The Identities of Persons I A.Rorty (ed.), 1976 (?? ?????'?? ?+???? ++ '???'?). ' ??? '???+'?' ????'' '???? ?'???? (William. '. Problem? of the Self, 1973) ??+??' ?''? ?????? ??': ''?''?':, ?? ??? ?'????'': ???????': +?'???: ''???'??. ?? '?: Parfit D. Reasons and Persons, 1984. ' ?'? ????: ?+?' ?? ?'?* '? ?:???': Penelhum T. Survival and Disembodied Existence, 1970; Mackit J.L. Problems from Locke, 1976; Chisholm R.M. Person and Object, 1976; Brody B.R. Identity and Essence, 1980; Hirsch E. The Concept of Identity, 1982; ??????? ??? ?.??????? .???+???? ??.: Shoemaker S., Swinburne R. Personal Identity, 1984.

' ?+?' ???? ??'? '????'?' ??????'' (Nagel T. Mortal Questions, 1979) ?+???? ???'???'?????' '???' ???:??' ? ??? ????, '? :????? ''??'???', ??? ?+??? ?????'?? +???' ? ????????? ''???'.

17 ' ??'? ?'???????? ?'???''????? '???'? ??.: Geach P. ?. Refe-rence and Generality, 1962; Geach P. T. Logic Matters, 1972, '? ?? ?''?? ?: Logic and Ontology I M.K.Munitz (ed.), 1973; Griffin N. Relative Identity, 1977; Griffin N., Routley R. Towards a Logic of Relative Identity // Logique et Analyse, 1979; Noonan H. Objects and Identity, 1980. - ??????'? ?'?'? ?'??' ?+?''??? ? ?????? ? '??' ?'?''???? ++'???' ? ???????'?? ??? '????. ?'??' ?'?''?, '? ?'?', ? ???'? ??'?? ??? ??'??'?, ?????? ??' ?'? '?'???? ?'??'??, ?' ?? ?'????'???'? '?: ????' ' '? ???'? ???' +''? ?????, ? ?+'?? ?? ?'?? ???+% ??? ???? ?????'??? '??' ? ???? ??? '???' (Dummen M. Frege, 1973) ??'??' ' ??+''?' ???, ?:????? ? ??? '????.

18 -??? '???? ???'?? ? '??? ?'?'???': ???? ?'? ?'-???, ?? ?? ??+''?'?? ???'??? ? ?''? ''???? ' ???'?' (Is Semantics Possible (1970) ?' ???? ?: Putnam H. Mind, Language and Reality, 1975). ??. '? ??'' ? ???? ?'??? ?.

140 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???'???, '? '???? ????'?' ???? ?'?????? ?'??????-???? ????? ? ???'?''? '?+?, ?? ??', ?+????? ???'??' ??????:%?? ?? ? ? ??????'???.

19 ??., ? ?????: Shorter J. M. Personal Identity, Personal Relationships, and Criteria // PAS, 1970. ????? ?+%? '???? ???? ???? ?''? ????%?'???? ???: ???'????'??': '?? ??? ?' '??, ??'???? ??+''??' ???+?'??, ?????, -.?.?'??? ? ??? '??-?+?'???' (Wilson E.O. Sociobiology, 1975) , ? ?'?'? ??''???, ? ??? '? '?????? ?????' (Wilson E.?. On Human Nature, 1978) ???'??? ??'???? ?'? ?????? ?+%?'? ?' ??'?' ?+?''??? ? +?'????? ????, '??, ??'??? ????' ??? ?'??? ???'?? ??? ???'??? ??'???? '?, '? ?' ?'?? '???????', ?'??' ????'? ?? ??'??'? '????.

20 '-????' ???? ?+??? ? ??'?'?? '?? ????'??'? '?????; :?'? ???? ????-'? ??'???' '?? ????' ?????', ?? ????? ??'???' ?? ?????'. ?.???? ? ???? ??? '''??' ??????' (Morick H. Challenges to Empiricism, 1972) ?+???' ???' ???''??? ??': ''???'??, ??? ? ????, ????, ????? ???? ???+???? ??????. '????? ?'?? ? ??'? ?'?'? ????? ??????'????, '? ?? ?? ' ???? ??-'? ???''??'????'?. ?? ? ?? ??., ? ?????: Seilars W. Science and Metaphysics, 1968. ?????, ?'??' ??+?'?, '? ?'? ??'? ???': +'??'''??': ???'?? '???, ????? ? ?+?': '???? ????, ?????? ??'????? R? ???'? ??? ?'????? ?'?'?.

21 '??'?? ??: Platts M. Ways of Meaning, 1979. ?????' ??? ???? ??' ? ????: ?+?':, ?????, ?: Scruton R. From Descartes to Wittgenstein, 1982, ?? ???'?????? '????'??? ''???'? ????'? ?+??'?'?? ?? ?'??.

22 ? '?? ??': ?'?? ??. ???. 35 ? ?'? 18 ? '?'? '' ''???''. ??'?? ? ?'???? ??'? ???? ' ???? ?'?''? ?' ??'? ? ?'???? ??'?. ????? ??.: Searle J. Austin on Locutionary and Illocutio-nary Acts // PR, 1968, '? Katz J.J. Literal Meaning and Logical Theory / / /P, 1981. ???? ??': ?''? ??'??' ?: Readings in the Philosophy of Language I J.Rosenberg, C.Travis (eds.), 1971. ???? '??? ????? ??'? '?' ?: Searle J. Intentionality, 1983. ? ????? '?? ??': ?'?? ? '????'?, '? ? ???'??+???'? ??? ????+?'? ?'?? ????????? ???'???, ???'?????? ? ????' ??'??? ?'????', ? '?? ??, ??'??'? ? ???'?? ???? ???+'?' ? ???'???, ??.: Kempson R.M. Semantic Theory, 1977, '?: Sadock J. Towards a Linguistic Theory of Speech Acts, 1974; Bach K., Hamish R.M. Communication and Speech Acts, 1980. ??'? ???+??? ??'??' ?''?? '..???: Ross J.R. On Declarative Sentences // Readings in Transformational Grammar I

????? 141

R.AJacobs, P.S.Rosenbaum (eds.), 1970. ??'?? ? ?''?? :??'?? ?'???? ? '?'??? ?'? ??'?. ??., ? ?????: Metaphor and Thought I A.Ortony (ed.), 1979; Philosophical Perspectives on Metaphor I M.Johnson (ed.), 1981.

? ????? ??'? ??'?? '??????''??'? ?????'? ??.: Transcendental Arguments and Science I P.Bieri et al. (eds.), 1979. ' ?''? '??'? '??'', ??'????? ? ?'?' ?+????, ?????'?? ?????+?? ++'???'?.

23 ??' '??? ? '? ????: '' ?+?'' ???'???? ? ???'???, ??? ? ??:' ? ??????' '''. ???? ??'???'?? ?? ?+?? ??????????? ? ? ???'??? ?????, ??'??' ?'??? ???%' ?'??????? ? ???'??? ???????'', '? ???? ?''???. ?? ?''?? '-??, ????????? ??????%?', ????' ???+'?????? ? '???????: ?'?' (Grice P. Utterer's Meaning // Foundations of Language, 1968), ????'?'?' ??+?? ???? ?:?'?? ??'?? '?? ???'??': ? ? '???? ? 1967 ?. '???????: '??. ??. '? ?? ?'?' ??'?? ?: Grice P. Utterer's Meaning and Intentions // PR, 1969. -' ?''?? ???' ? ??'??? ?''??? ?? +'???? ??? ?.?.?'????? '..??'?, ?????%??'? ?? +?' ???? ?''? '-??' (Grice P. Meaning // PR, 1957), ????? ???+'????' ?: The Philosophy of Language I J.R.Searle (ed.), 1971. ??. '?: ZiffP. On P.H.Grice's Theory of Meaning // Analysis, 1967; Mackay A. Professor Grice's Theory of Meaning // Mind, 1974; Pat ton ?.., Stampe D. W. The Rudiments of Meaning: on Ziff on Grice // Foundations of Languages, 1969; Wilson N.L. Grice on Meaning // Nous, 1970; Schiffer S.R. Meaning, 1972; Armstrong D.M. Meaning and Communication // PR, 1971; Strawson P.P. Logico-Linguistic Papres, 1971; Black M. Meaning and Intention // Black M. Caveats and Critiques, 1975; Bennett J. Linguistic Behaviour, 1976. ?''?? '??? '-??' ??'?? -'' ????? ? ????? ??'??? ?''??? en passant ('??.: ????'??) ???? ??' ?: Semantics I D.Steinberg, L.Jakobovits (eds.), 1971. ??????????? '??? ??? ??+''?'?? ?: Loar '. Mind and Meaning, 1981.

24 -'? ??? ???'??': '????? '???????: '??, ???+'?????? ?: Syntax and Semantics I P.Cole, J.L.Morgan (eds.). V. 3 'Speech Acts', 1975, ?? ? ?+????'?? '???'??'?? ??????? ''???'?? '????'??. ?+???? ??. '? ?: Davidson D., Harman G. The Logic of Grammar, 1975. ??????? ?? ????' +'' ?'????'???? ?: Grice P. The Causal Theory of Perception // PASS, 1961. -' ?''?? ?????+?? ?+?'?? ?: Platts M. De B. Ways of Meaning, 1979. ????'?????? '??? '???????': ???'?''??' ??.: Gordon D., Lakoff G. Conversational Postulates // Papers from the Seventh Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 1971, -' '??? ??'??'?? ?? '?'???? ?'????' ??'? ?: Sear le J.R. Expression and Meaning, 1979.

142 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

''? 2

1 ???'?? ???'??' ????'?? ? ?????? ? '??, ? ???? ?'?? ?'? ?? ???? ?'?' ? ??????. (???'? ??'???? ????? ? ?????'???, ?'??'???'? .??????, ?'?' ? 1983 ?.). ??.: Godel R. Les Sources manuscrites du Cours du linguistique gnrale, 1957. ? ?????-pe ??.: Culler J. Saussure, 1976 ' ? +?' ??'??? ?? ?''?? '?? '???? ?: Structuralism I D.Robey (ed.), 1973. ?.'????? ? ??? '????? ?'?' (Jameson F. Prison-House of Language, 1972) ????' '?, ?? ??'???' ?????? ???? ?? ? ???? ??? '-?? ???' (Ogden ?.?., Richards LA. Meaning of Meaning, 1923), ?'?? ?'? ?????'?? '???????? ??'?-????????? ?????', ??'??'? ?'?' '?????'? ?'?? ?'?????'? ?+??'?'.^ ??? ?'? ?????'?, ?? ? ?????'????? ?? ??? ????? ???' '?????, ?'? '????'??, ????'??% +'? ??? ': +?' ?????': '??'???-'? '?''????'?, ??'??', ?' +' ???'??? : ?????'?'?, ???'???? ?'???' +' ??? ???' ? ????+?'? ??'??'? ??''??? ?'????'. ? ?????? ?'????', ???:?? ?????? ???? ?????' ?? '?'''??'?. ?????? ? ??'''?? ? .?.???, ? '?? ???? ??'????? ??. '?'? '' ''???'', ?. 106?'108. ? ???, ?????, ?''??? ?'?? ??' ??????? '????' ?.'.?'?. ?????+??? ++'???'? ???' ?: Parret H. Language and Discourse, 1971, ?? '????'? ???+% ?: Salus P.H. Panini to Postal: a Bibliography in the History of Linguistics, 1971.

2 ??.: Jakobson R. Selected Writings. V. 1-4, 1962. ???+??? +?'???? ??'???'?? ??'???'?? ?? ?+?' '-?'?''??? ??'?: '????'? ???'?', ??'???? ? ?+????: Style in Language I T.A.Sebeok (ed.), 1960. ' ?'' ?' ??????, ???+??? '??' ???. ? ??? ??? ???????????? '????'??? ?????? '???'??? ??.: Jameson F. The Prison-House of Language, 1972. ??? ????: '????'?? '??  ???'' ???+??? ??'? ?'?? '.'???'? ? ?? ?+?'?? '???'????' ? '?? ?'?' (Hjelmslev L. Prolegomena to a Theory of Language, 1943; ???+?'??? ??'???? ?? 1961). ? ???? ?????? ???' '????'? ? ?.?.???+?? ? ??'? ???%?? ????'?''? ???? ????'? ?: A Prague School Reader in Linguistics I J.Vachek (ed.), 1964. ??. '?: Vachek J. The Linguistic School of Prague, 1966. ????'? '?'???'??'?' ?? ????'?? ???? ?'???' ??????'??? ??? '??? ? '????'???? ???'?? ? ??? ? 1929 ?. ??.: Benveniste E. 'Structure' en linguistique // Sens et Usages du terme 'srtucture ' dans les sciences humaines et sociales I R.Bastide (d.), 1962. ??? '????' '???+'?' ?+%? '????'?' (Benveniste E. Problems in General Linguistic, 1966, ??'???? ????? 1971) ??'???'?? ?''??'? ?'???, ???+?-

????? 143

?? +'????? ???????'??? ????? ? '???????', ?''?%???? ?? ?' ?'?'??': ???'???, '? ?' ????'': ????'?????. ??. ++'???'? ?: Ehrmann J. Structuralism, 1970. ???'??? ????'?'? ? ???'? ????????? '????'? ???? ???'?'? ??: New Horizons in Linguistics I J.Lyons (ed.), 1970, ?? ?????'?? ?????+?? ++'???'?. ??????? ?? 'Linguistics and Philosophy' (''????'? ''???'?', 1979) ?? ?????? ?'?' '?, '? ????:??' ? ?'?? ?+'?'. ??. '?: Parret H. Language and Discourse, 1971. ?'???'??? ??'? ?'???'??'? ? +?' ?????? ???'??' '?? ?'???', ?? ?: Seung ?.?. Structuralism and Hermeneutics, 1982.

3 ??. ?+?'? ??'???''? ??'???? ??:?'?? -.? ?: Structuralism, 1971.0 '??'???? ?'???'??'?' ? '?? ??.: Gandillac de M., Goldmann L., Piaget J. Entretiens sur les notions de gense et de structure, 1965. ? ?:??' '?'???'??'?'??' ??? ??????? ???? ?'?'???, '????'??, ??:?'????, ???'???? ??':, ??? ??'??? '?-?'????, ???? ?'?'???? : ?'??'? ??''? ?'???'??'? ???'???? ?????'? ?'??. ' ?+???? ?''? ??'???: ?'???? '?'???'??'?: ????' ??? ??. '.?+ (Structuralism: Introduction I D.Robey (ed.), 1973) ?'???'??'? ????'?'?? % +?' ???: ?'? ???''? ?'???'? '?????? ??'?'??? ?? ????'?? ????. (?''?? '.?'? ? ?'?? ?+???? ?'?' ?????? '???, ?? '?'???'??'?' +'' ???:?? ???'??'? ??'??'? ??'???? ''???'? ? ?????'??? ??'????). ?.?''', ??? ?????: '??'?-??????:' ''???'??, ???? ?????????: ?'???'??'?, ? ???? ?+?' '????' ?'???'??'?' (Pettit P. The Concept of Structuralism, 1975) ???' ???'? ?'???? ?'?'????, ???? '?? ? '?'???'??'?'?' ? '?? ??????, '? ?? ? ??' ???, '? ???'?'?'???'? +' ???'???. -.???-'??'? ? ??? ??'??? ?+?' '?'???'???'? ?' ?'???'??'?'??? ??'???' (Parain- Vial J. Analyses structurales et idologies structuralistes, 1969) ??'?' '??, ?'?'???? ???? ? ?'? '??'???? ?'???'??'?'. ???+??' :??'??', ? +?'????'? ???? ????% ??????' ++'???', ?'?? ?''?'?? ???? ?' ???? ????'?'??'? ? ?: ?'???. Structuralism I J.Ehrmann (ed.), 1970 ?' ????' ?''?? ??'???? '???????? '????' ?.??'?, ???'???? ??'????? ???? RIP 1965?. ??? ???? '????' ?'???'??'' (La Notion de structur), ?''?? ? ??'?-???', ? ??'???? ?????'??, '? '???? ?? ??'??, ?? +'' +' ''???'?? ?'???'??'?', ? ??''???? ?+???? ?????%? '?-?'????? '???. Structuralism and Semiotics I T.Hawkes (ed.), 1977 ?' ??'?' ???????? ?''???? ++'???'?, ?'??? ???? ? ?? ??'?? ?'?? ''?'????? ??'?. George de R. and F. The Srtucturalists, 1972 ?' ????' ?''? ????, ????, ???+???, '?',

144 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

'?-?'????, ?'?'???? ???? +?'?? ???'??'?? ? ??? '???. The Language of Criticism and the Sciences of Man I R.Macksey, F.Donato (eds.), 1970 ?' ????' ???'?' ? ?????????? ?????? ?''? ???%: ?'???'??'?'??. ??. '? ??'?? ?''? ? '?-?'????, '?', ????, '?? '??? ?: Structuralism and Since I J.Sturrock (ed.), 1979. Theorie d'ensemble, 1968 ?' ?? '?'? ?'?' ('Tel Quel'), ????% ??? ?''? ???%: ?'???'??'?'??, ??'??, ????? ? ???????'': ?'????, R.???'?? ?.??''??. '?'? ?'?' ?' ?'? ??? ??????? ?''??'?, ????-'? ???????? ??+'?? ?+?' ?+?' ???'??': ?'???'??'?'??. ? ???????: ?? ?'???'??'?? ?? '?????: ??????: ???: ??. ++'???'? ?: Poster M. Existential Marxism, 1975. P. 306. ????? ? '??? ???: Broekman J.M. Structuralism, 1971 (??'???? ????? 1974) ?' ????' ????'??? ?????+??? ?'? ?+?'???? ??????' ?'???? ? ????? ???. ' ?''? ?.''? (F.Wahl) ?: Qu'est-ce que le structuralisme?I O.Ducrot et al. (eds.), 1968 ?' ?'?'?'?? ' '?? ???, '? ?'? ?'???'??'? ??%?'??? ???? ?????'???? ??'? ??. '???'???', '???? ???????? '?? ? ?+%: ?':, ??' +?'?? ?'??, ? ?? '??? ?'? ?? '????. ??. +?'???? ??? ?+?': Approaches to Semiotics /T.Sebeok (ed.), 1969. ? ???????'???? ?' ??.: CowardR., Ellis J. Language and Materialism, 1977. ??. '?: Kurzweil E. The Age of Structuralism, 1980, ?? ????'?'?? ??' ?'???'??'? ?' '?-?'???? ?? ????; Kemp P. Le Structuralisme franais // Contemporary Philosophy I G.F10istad Ed.). V. 2,1982 ?????+??? ++'???'? ?? ????? ???'??, ???'?'???? '.?.?''???: Miller J.M. French Structuralism, 1981.

4 -'? '??? ?'?? ???? ???' ????'??? ? % +?' '????? ? '??:?'?? ???' (1968, ??'???? ????? 1972). '?' ????? '''???? ?'?? ?'?' ?? ??'????? +??? (1961), +?'?? (1963), '??? (1975) ????'????' (1976). ??. ??'??'? ???? ???' 'Magazine littteraire' 1975 ?., '? ???????'' ?'? ?+% ?+?''. '??? ?'?? ? ????. ' ???? ??'? ???'????? ???? ?'???' ???'????? 'cogito' (Derrida J. Cogito and the History of Madness // Derrida J. Writing and Difference, 1967, ??'???? ????? 1978) '??? ?'?' '? ?'+?? ?'????? ?'?? ?'??', ? ??'???? ?+?'' ???? ???? ??'?, ? ?'???' ?'??? ??'. (????? ???? ?' ??''??'? ?'?' ? ?'? ??'?? ?? ?'???? ?? ???? '??'?? +???', 1972). ??., ? ?????: Huppert G. Divinatio et Eruditio: Thoughts on Foucault // History and Theory, 1974. ????? ???'??' ?'??? ?????'?' ?''? ???? '????''??'?' '??+???%? ? ??'?'???'; ?? ?+'?' ???? :????? ????%'? ???'?? ? ???''???. ?+?? ???'??? ???? ??? ??'???'

????? 145

'????? ???'?'?'' '?????'??. -' '?? ??:????'?? ?? ??? +'????? '?? ''???'?, ?? ?.'?'??, ?.?'? -.'???. ??. ? ?'???': Ricoeur P, The Conflict of Interpretation, 1969 (??'???? ????? 1974). ? ?? ??'? ? ?'???'??'? ??.: Anthropologie // Situations, V. 9, 1972. ? ??'? ?? ?'????' '?????: ?????'?? ??.: Sebag L. Marxisme et structuralisme, 1964; Lefebvre H. Au-del du structuralisme, 1970. ? '??? ?'?? ?? ????, '? ??: ?'???'??'?'?? ??'? ?'?? ??' ??? '?'?? '?'?? '?'???'? ?' (Bachelard G. La Philosophie du non, 1940), ? ??'???? ?? ?'???', '? ??? ????? '??, ?????? ? ????? ????? ?'???'??', ?'? ?????'?' ???? ?'?? '???, '? ? ?????'???'?. ??. ?????%??'? '?'??? ???? RIP 1963 ?., '?: Lecourt D. Pour une critique de Pepistemologie: Bachelard, Canguilhem, Foucault, 1972, ??????'? ? ??'???? ?'? ??: Marxism and Epistemology, 1975; Vade M. Gaston Bachelard, 1975; Canguilhem G. %tudes d'Histoire et de Philosophie des Sciences, 1968. ? ???'???%? ???????'?? ?'?? ???? ? ?'?' ??. ??? ???''??' ?'????: Foucault M. Power/Knowledge / C.Gordon (ed.), 1980. ?+% ??'???? ???' ?: Sheridan A. Michel Foucault, 1980. -?? ??????'' ? ?'?'? ???? ???'??'?? ? ??.: Dreyfus H., Rabinow P. Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, 1982. ???? ????'??'?? ?? ??'? ???': ?'''?'?'??': '??? ?: Racevskis ?. Michel Foucault and the Subversion of Intellect, 1983. ?.?'?? (Clark M.) ?????'??' ? 1982 ?. ???'??????? ++'???'?.

5 ?'?'???? ???-'? ???? ?' ??? ?????? '''????? ??'??? ? ' ''???'?? ??'????': ?????'??. '?''?????? ??'?? ?'?'???? ???' ? ?????%???? ?? ??????', ??'????? ?: Thompson E. P. The Poverty of Theory and Other Essays, 1978, '? ??.: Sayer D. Science as Critique: Marx vs. Althusser // Issues in Marxist Philosophy I J.Mepham, D.Rubin (eds.), 1979. ? ?'???? ?'???? ?'?'???? ? '???????? ???????? ??.: R?ndere J. La Leon d'Althusser, 1974 (???? +'' ????? ?'?'????) Contre Althusser / J.M.Vincent (ed.), 1974, a '? +?????? ???'? (Poster) ? ?? ???'????? ????'???%??? ++'???'??. ????' ?'?'?????? ??'??? ???? ???'?' ???? ???'????? ?'??? ?: Althusser L. Lenin and Philosophy, 1968 (??'???? ????? 1971). ?????'?'? '?-?'???? ?'?'???? ??.: Glucksmann M. Structuralist Analysis in Contemporary Social Thought, 1974. ??. '?: CallinicosA. Althusser's Marxism, 1976. ??'? ?'?'?????? ??'?'????? ????? ??+?? ? ??.: Althusser L. For Marx, 1965 (??'???? ????? 1969). '+'???'? ???' ? ?+?': Althusser L. Essays in Self Criticism, 1976, ??'??? ????'?'?' ??+?? ??'???? ????? ??? ?? ?''? (1973?'1974). ''?'?? ? ?????-

146 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?: ???: ???'?' ??'???'??': ?????. ??., ? ?????: Poster M. Althusser on History without Man // Political Theory, 1974 (? ++'???'?). ? ?'?'????, ?? ? ????, ?''??? ?'?? ??' '?-'??. ???'???? +?' ??????? :??'? ??.: Kelly M. Modern French Marxism, 1982. -' ?+?' ?+??' ?'???'? ???'??' ?: Piccone P. Italian Marxism, 1983. ?+ ?'?'???? ??. '?: Smith S.B. Reading Althusser, 1984.

6 ' '? ?????-'? ???? ?'?? '?? ?? ?????? ??????'???'??? +'????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? : ?'?'?? ? ??'???? ?'?, ??? ? ??.: Lacan J. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-analysis (1978). -' ????' ???%' ??: '?', ????, '???, ?'?'????. ??., ? ?'???', '?? ?? '?? ?'?'?????? ? ??.: Althusser L. Lenin as a Philosopher. ''????'???' ?'?'???? ???? ????' ?'????'????? '???? ? ????* 1953?. 'Discours de Rome' // Lacan J. The Function and field of the world and of the language in Psycho-analysis. -' ?+?' +'' ???'? ? ??.: Lacan J. Ecrits, 1966 +'' ????? ? ??'???? ?'? ?.??'???? ??? ???? 'The Language of the Self' (1968), ?? ??+? ?????? ? 64 ?. ?''?? ? '?? ? 150 ?. ?? ? ?? ?'?? ??'?-??????? ''???' ???? ' ??'?'?? ? '?, '? ?? ?? ??? ???'?? ?????'. ??. ??'???? ????? ???? '??, ??'??? ?????????? ?'? ''???'??: Lacan J. The insistence of the letter in the unconscious // Structuralism I J.Ehrmann (ed.) (? ??????? ?''?? -.??'? ?+????? ++'???'?). ???? '?? ? ??:??''???? ??? +'' ????'??? +?????. ????''??? +'????'????? ???? ???' ?: Turkle S. Psychoanalytic Politics, 1979; ???+??? ???+?'? ?''? ?? ? ?+?' ?? ?'???'? ????: George F. L'effet 'yau de po?le, 1978. ??. '?: Clment ?. et al. Jacques Lacan, 1974; ??'???? ????? +???': ?'? ?+?'' '???''' ('Ecrits') ??? ??. ?.??? 1977 ?.; Coward R.t Ellis J. Language and Materialism, 1977; Stanton M. Outside the Dream, 1983. ????? ??'? '?? ??????'?? ?: Felman S. Le Scandale du corps parlant, 1980. ?????? ? ?'? ??'???? '??????? ?????'? ??. ?: Ricoeur P. Freud and Philosophy, 1970. '?' ????? ???'? ''???'??: ?????'?? ? ???? ???' ?: Freud l R. Wollheim (ed.), 1974; Philosophical Essays on Freud l R. Wollheim, J.Hopkins (eds.), 1982.

7 '?-?'???? ???' ?????? '''????? ??'??? +'????? ???? ?+?' '?'??' '????' (Lvi-Strauss ?. Tristes Tropiques, 1955, ??'?'? ??'???? ????? 1974), ????%? ?? '?' ??'?'?? ? ??'??'? ?+?' ? ??'? ?'????'??. ??., ? ?'???', 39 '?'???? ?'?? ???'. ?? ??? '????+''?? ?'?'?' (1962, ??'???? ????? 1966) ? ???????? '????' ???? ?????? ?'?'?? ???' '? '??' ? '?????? ?????. ??'?? '????'-

????? 147

???? ?? '?? ?? ? '?'???'????? ?'????'??' (1958, ??'???? ????? 1963). ??? '-'??'??' ?'???'??' ????'?' (1949, ??'???? ????? 1969) ?????+?'???' ?????? ?? ?'?? ? ???'? '? , ?? ?'??? ?????+?'???' ??? ?+?' ?? ?'?'??, ?'? ??'???? ??'?' ??? '?'?? ????' (1964, ??'???? ????? 1969). ??'?? '?? ?? ?'?? ??. ? ?''?: Lvi-Strauss ?. The Structural Study of Myth // Journal of American Folklore, 1955, ??'??? +'' ???'? ?: George R. and F. The Structuralists. ?? ?+%? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ????'?'? ? ??.: Charbonnier G. Conversations with Claude Lvi-Strauss, 1961 (??'???? ????? 1969). ' ??'? ????? ??. ?+?'?: Leach E. Claude Lvi-Strauss, 1970. ?'?'?? ?????????? ??'? ? '?-?'???? ????'?'?' ? ??.: Paz ?. Claude Lvi-Strauss, 1967 (??'???? ????? 1970). ??. '?: Leach E. Culture and Communication, 1976. ??? ?''? ? '?-?'???? ? ???'??'? ?'?'??? ?? ??? ?????+??? ++'???'? ?? ?+?' ?? 1968 ?. ????'?? ?: Hayes E.N. and T. Claude Lvi-Strauss: the Anthropologist as Hero, 1970. ? '??, ?? ?? +'' ????' ? ???', ??. ?''?? ?.'????-'???? ? ??.: The Language of Criticism and the Sciences of Man. R.Macksey, E.Donato (eds.), 1970. ?.?''' ? '?'???'??'?' (Pettit P. Structuralism) ??'??' ???????'? '?-?'?????? ?' ?'?? ?? '?? ' ?'? +?'??, ? '????'?+'? ???+???? ???+??? ?? ??'???'? ????'. ??. '?: Chomsky N. Language and Mind. 2nd ed., 1972. ? ??'? ?? ?'????' '??? ??., ? ?'???': Derrida J. Of Grammatology, 1967 (??'???? ????? 1974). ?????+?? ++'???'? ?????'?? ?: Ehrmann J. Structuralism, 1970.

8 ????? ? ???? ???'??'?? ?' '?' '?', '? ??????? ???????'??? ??'?, ??'???? ? ????-'? ?? +'' ????' ?'???'??'?'', ??:???' ?????'? '????-?''???, ? ????? '??'?'????? ?????'. ' 1970- ???' ??''?? ????. ' ???? ?+?' '??'? ?%?' (1968) -.'????? ???'?' ?????'???-?'???'??'?'??? ?' '????? ??'?+'?? ??, ?? ???? ??', ???? ???'. ' '-??' ???????'?' (1973, ??'???? ????? 1975) ?? ?'???' ????? ? ?????? ?????? ?'???'??'?, '? ?'?' ??'??? ??? ? ??+''? ?? 1968 ?. ?? ?+???? ? ??? ?'???'??'?'?? ????'?? ? ' ????'??? ????' ???????, '? ? ??? ??'? ? ?'??'???? :??'? ?'?, ? ?'? ?? '??? ??????? '? ?? ????, '? ???? ??'??'?? ????? ?'??? +??????? ?+%?'?. ''? '???': ''???'??' ?? ??? ???? +'' ????'? ?? ????+??'? ????; ?' ''???'' ?'' ??'? ???'??? ?'??''? ????'? ??????? ?'??? ? ???? 70-: ??. ??., ? ?????: Levy '. -?. Barbarism with a Human Face, 1977 (??'???? ????? 1979) Glucksmann A. The Master Thinkers, 1977 (??'???? ne-

148 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

???? 1980). '? ???'?''??? ???', '? ?'? '?, ?? ??'?? ???:??' ??'? '?????: ?'''?'?'?? ? ???'??? ?????, ?? +??'? ? '??, '? ????:??' ? ?'?? ?'??, ?? ? ???' ????'? ?????, ???? ??''? ??'?'?.

9 '??? ??' ?''??? ?'?? ? ''?'????? ??'??. ??., ? ?????, ?????%??'? '??? ???? 'The Oxford Literary Review' 1978 ?. ' Bloom H. et al Deconstruction and Criticism, 1979. '?' ?+% ?????'?? ?? ?? ??.: Jameson F. The Prison-House of Language, 1972; ??? ? ??: '??? ????? ???? '.???? (G.Spivak) ? ??'?????? ?????? '? ????'?'??'; ??. Rorty R. Philosophy as a Kind of Writing // New Literary History, 1978 ????'??? ?''?? '.?'? (J.Culler) ?: Structuralism and Since I J.Sturrock (ed.), 1979. ??????''? '????'? '??? ?+????'?? ?: Fuchs W. W. Phenomenology and the Metaphysics of Presence, 1976. ?+ ?'?'?: ?? ??? ??.: Finas L. et al. %carts, 1973. ' 'Annexe III' (??'?? III) ? ?'??? ??? ?'??'?'?? ???, '? '??? ??'??'?? ?''??? +?'??? ???? ???'? ???, ? ? ?? ????, ?? ?? ? ???????? '?' ?'???'' ???': ?????''??, ??:??''? ??''. ?????'?'? '??? ''???'?? ??. ?? ???? ?.'??? ? ??'?????? ?????? ??? ''?'?? '????', '? Grene M. Philosophy In and Out of Europe, 1976. ?+ ??????: ??'?????: ? ?'' '??? ??. Rorty R. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, 1979. ' ?'' ?' ?'???'??'?'??, '??? ???? ?' ?'????. ????? ??. ?? '??' (1972, ??'???? ????? 1981), ????% ?? ?????'? ? ????? ??:??'. ? ??? '??? ? ????????? ''?'????? ??'??? ??. Norris ?. Deconstruction: Theory and Practice, 1982. ??'?? ?????+?? ++'???'? ? ???????? ?? 'Research in Phenomenology' (1978) ??'?? ???+??? ? ???????'?? ?+?' ?????. '??? ???????? ???? ??'? ?? ?'????' ?????'??, ????'???: ? ?? ?????'? ???''???? ??? '+?'????? ?????. ????? ?.?? ? ???? ?+?' '????? ?????'????' (Ryan M. Marxism and Deconstruction, 1982) ?'??'?' ???, '? ????? ??' ???'???'? ?'??' '??? ? ???? ??'? ??''? ?????? +???'??? ? : ????%?? ???'? ??+?'?????? ????'?.

10 '??? ??' (? 1962 ?.) ?? ?????? ?????''?? '?' ???'?' '????'?; ?? ?????+?' ?????'? ? '?? ???? '????'? ? ?+?' ''?'?? '????' (1967, ??'???? ????? 1973) ?? ?: ??? ??' ?'?'??? ?? ?'? ?? ?? ? '??. ' ?+?' '? ????'?'??' (1967, ??'???? ????? 1976) '??? ?+?''?? ? ????. -' ?+?'' ?' ???+??? ???' ?? ?' ?? % ????' :??'? ?'???''??? '?????': ?????'??. ????? ? '??:??????? ???' (1974), ?? '?'? ?????'?'?'?? ? '?????? ??''? -??? -?, '??-

????? 14S

? +?' ???? '???, ?' ??'???? ? ??' ???? ?? ???'?? ?? ???' ? ???'? ? ??'???? ?????? ???'?? ???+???'?* ????? ????'? ?'?+???. (? ???'? ??:??' ? ? '???' ? '??, '? ????? ? ??'?? ????'? '???? + '???, '?+? ? ??? ????? '??? ? ?'??' ??.)

11 ??'??? ??+'?? ??? ????'??? ?'???. '??? ???'; ???? ???'? '??????, ??+'', ???'??'' ? ?????????? ???????' '?????: ''???'??: ?+%?'? ? 1971?. ?? +'' ???+'???? ? ?+? ' '??? '??'? ''???'' (1972), ?? ??'???? ????? +'' ? ?'? ? ???????? ?? '??? ?????? 'Glyph I' (1977) ?? ?' ? ?'?'?? ? ??? '..??'?. ??? ?'??'? ?'?' '??? ??? ? ??? 'Limited Inc. a b ?' +'' ???+'???? ? 'Glyph II'. ?? ???' ????'? ? ??'????? ????? '??'? ''???'' (Derrida J. Margin of Philosophy, 1983). '''? ??? ??'? ?'??????? '???' ?'?] ?''?? ? ???'??. ??. ?? ??? ? ?''? (?' 27 ??'?+?? 1983 ?. ?'?' ? ????? ??? (?' 2 '??'? 1984 ?.) ? 'New York Review'

12 -?????'?? ? ?+?'? ???????? ??'?? ?'? ?: Chomsky: Slecte* Readings I J.P.Allen, P. van Buren (eds.), 1971. '? ??'?? ?? ''???' ?: ??, ??., ? ?'???': Chomsky N. Language and Mind (??????? ?? 1972) Chomsky N. Reflections on Language, 1976. ??. '?: Lyon J. Chomsky, 1970; On Noam Chomsky I G.Harman (ed.), 1974; Leiber J. Noar Chomsky, 1975; Sampson G. The Form of Language, 1975; D'Agostino I Chomsky's System of Ideas, 1984. '? ???? ???????? ? ??? ''??? ?? ?'???'?? '????'???? '??' (Chomsky N. The Logical Structur of Linguistic Theory), ??????? ? 1955 ?. ????' ???+'??????? 1975 ?., ???'?'?? ?? ?'''?'?'??? ??'. ?? ??' ??? ??? ?'?'? ??? ?'?'; ???''??' ?? ?'????, ???+'?????' ? Magee '. Men of Ideas, 1978 Parrel -. Discussing Language, 1974. ? ??? ??? '??? ???????? ''???'? ?'? ???? ''???'? ?+? ?????? ?'? ??.: Katz J.J. The Philosophy of Language, 1966 Katz J.* The Underlying Reality of Language and its Philosophical Import, 1971. (At ?'???? ?? 1972 ?. ?'? ??? 'Linguistic Philosophy'). ????? ? ???'?, '? ?????? ''???'?? ???? ????'???' ???? ???? ???????' ?: Erde E.L. Philosophy and Psycho-Liguistic, 1973. ??. '?' ?''? ?: Language and Philosophy l S.Hook (ed.), 1969. ?????+?? ++'? ??'?, ???+??? ?? ??????'??'? ???????'? ??'?????? ? Fej ??, ?????%??'? ????????, ??.: Stegm?ller W. Hauptstrumungen de Gegenwarts-philosophie, 1975. ??. '?: Linguistik und Sprachphilosophie M.Gerhardt (ed.), 1974. ? ??????? ? ???'??' '???????? ?'???'??? '? ??.: Parain-Vial J. Analyses structurales et ideologies structuraliste 1969 ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?: Reflexive Water I Elder F. (ed. 1974. ' ??'? ??'???? ????? ? '???'???????? ????'??

150 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

?'' ???????? ?'??' ?+?''??? ? ??.: Bach E. Syntactic Theory, 1974 Grinder J. T., Elgin S.H. Guide to Transformational Grammar, 1973. ??. '?: The Structure of Language I J.A.Fodor, JJ.Katz (eds.), 1964; Readings in Transformational Grammar I R.Jacobs, P.S.Rosenbaum (eds.), 1970. '''??? '?? '?? ? '?? ??? ? ??.: Katz J. /., Postal P. An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions, 1964. ? ??'? ?? ?'????' '????'?? ??.: Hocken ?.F. The State of the Art, 1968; ????? ???'? ??'??: ?????'?? ????'?'? ?: Discussing Language I H.Parret (ed.); Matthews P. Generative Grammar and Linguistic Competence, 1979. '?' '''?'????' ??'? ? ???'???'??????? ?? ????'?'? ?: Robinson I. The New Grammarian's Funeral, 1975. ??. '?: Syntactic Theory I F.Householder (ed.), 1972 Smith N., Wilson D. Modern Linguistics: the Results of Chomsky's Revolution, 1979. To, ??? ?+??? .+?' ???? '????'' ?????????? '?'''??'??' ?' ???????? ???'?' ? ??, ?+???'?? ? ??.: The Nature of Syntactic Representation I P.Jacobsen, G.Pullum (eds.), 1982. ??'?? ? ?? '?? ??': ?'?? ??. ? ?''? '?? ??'? ?: On Noam Chomsky I G.Harman (ed.), 1974. '''??? ???? ????, ???????: ? '????'???? '?? ????????, ?? ? ?: ?? ?'????' ?? ??''? ??'??? ??.: Newmeyer F.J. Linguistic Theory in America, 1980. ??. '? ??????', ??????' ?: Langendoen D. T., Postal P.M. The Vastness of Natural Languages, 1984.

13 ??.: Chomsky N. Problems of Knowledge and Freedom, 1972 Chomsky N. For Reasons of State, 1973, ?? ? ??'? ????' ??' ?'??? '' '????. ?? +?' ????'? ?+?'' ?? ??????? ????? ???+'? '? ???? ??' ? ??.: Radical Prioriries. C.Otero (ed.), 1981. ? ?????? ??? ??''??? ??'??? ???????? ?? '????'??? '???? ??.: Sampson G. Liberty and Language, 1979. ??'???? ?????'??? ''???' ??? '' ? ?'?? +?'??? ???'? ?'???'?? ? ???-?????, ? ? ?'?'?????. ??.: Schaff A. Structuralism and Marxism, 1978.

14 ? ?? ??'? ??'?'?? ?'?? ?''????? ?'?'''? ??? XVIII ?? ''??'?? '?? '??+?'??'. ' ??'? ?+%?? ????? ? ?? ????? ??.: Humanist without Portfolio IM.Cowan (ed.), 1963 ' ???? ? ?????? '.? .'??? (1969 ?.) ?+?'' '??+?'??' ''??' ??''????' ???????'?', ??????? ? 1791 ?., ?? ??'???'?? ???+'??????? '?? ? 1852 ?. ? '?? ?'? '??+?'??' ??., ? ?'???': Cassirer E. The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. V. 1,1923 (??'???? ????? 1953). ??? ??????: '????'?? +?'??? ?'??? ??'???'?? '? '????'?'?%?' -???? ???. ??.: Sapir E. Language, 1921 Selected Essays by E.Sapir I O.G.Mandelbaum (ed.), 1949. ??????? ??'?? ???? '???, ? ?????? ?+?? ?????, ??? ?: Grinder J. ?., Elgin S.H. Guide to Transformational Grammar, 1973. ??. '?: Harris Z. Papers on Syntax / H.Hiz (ed.), 1981. '?' ???? ????? ???? ??. ? ?'.: Harris

????? 151

Z. A Theory of Language // APQ, 1976. ??' -'' ?'???' ''???'?? ?'??'?? '?? ???? ?: ZiffP. Semantic Analysis, 1960. ?????? ???' ??? '?? ? '? ????, ???? ?? +'' ?????' ? ????'': ??????'??': '???: ?'?, ??'??' ???? ??'' ? ?? '????. ????? ?? ?'???? ? ????''????' ????'? '????': ???'????', ??+''??' ? ????? ??'????? ?'?? ???? ?? '?? ?'???. ??., ? ?????, ?+?'?: Hockett ?.F. A Manual of Phonology, 1955, ? ??'???? ?????? ?' ??? ? 'International Journal of American Linguistics' (1957). ???'??? '?? '????, ??????%? ????+? ????? ?'??'?, ??'??'? ???'??' ????? ?'????? ???'???? ?'+?' ?'??? ?'????, ?? ?'?? ???????' ?'+?? ? '?+?? ???'? ????' ???? ?????' ?????'???%? ?'????. ''???'?' '???? ?'? ????'?'?' ??+?? ????? ? ????+?' ???. ''+?? ?'??? '???'?', ?' ? ??? ?'??'? ?'???? ?'+?'? '???'; ?'+?? ???' ?'?? '???'?' ?'??? '?'??', ?' ? ??? '? ?'+?'? '??'' ? ??'? '?'??? ?'?? '.?. '??? ???????? ???'?' ? '??, '? ?'? ?' ? ??? ??''? ?'+?? + ?+?%?? ? ?'???, ??'??' +'' ?'+??' ?? ???'???? ?????'???%?? ?'??. ??, ? ???'?? ''???, ??????? ?? ?+ ?'??, ? ???'' ?'+?? '? ???'' ??' ?' ?'?? ''???', ? ?' ?'?? '?'??'. ? ???'' ????'? ????': ???'???? ????' ? '????'???'?'?' '???? ???'?+'?? ?'?. ??. '?: Suppes P. Probabilistic Grammars for Natural Languages // Synthese, 1970. ? ????: ??+?'?: ?'??? ??????'??????? ?'?'''? ??.: Patrick Suppes l R.J.Bogdan (ed.), 1979. ? ''?? ???????' ? '?? ??.: Cherry ?. On Human Communication, 1966.

15 ? ?????? ??? '?????? '????? ?'?+???? ?'???'???? ??. ?''? '.????, '.? ?.???? ? ??.: The Semantics of Natural Language I D.Davidson, G.Harman (eds.), 1972. ??. '? ?????'? '.'??'' (J.Lakoff) ?: Discussing Language I H.Parret (ed.), 1974. '?' ???? ??'??' ???????? ????'?'?' '? ? ?+?': Chomsky N. Deep Structure, Surface Structure and Interpretation, 1970, ???'???? ? ??.: Chomsky N. Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar, 1972. '. ? ?'?'?' ???'???? ????'? ? ???'???? '??????? '?????? '??? ? 'Monist' (1977). ?????? ????%'?? ? ?+????? ?'?? '?' ?: Chomsky N. Rules and Representations, 1980. ??. '?: Chomsky N. Philosophical Analysis and Deep Structure // Monist, 1973.

16 -'? ?+?'? ???? ????'? ? ??.: The Structure of Language I J.A.Fodor, J.J.Katz (eds.), 1964.'??. '?: Chomsky N. Some Empirical Assumptions in Modern Philosophy of Language // Philosophy, Science and Method I S.Morgenbesser, P.Suppes, M.White (eds.), 1969, ?? ?? ??'? ????'? ? '?'??? ???'? ?????, ?? ???'? ???? ''???'??.

152 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

17 -' ?'? ??? '????'?? ????'??'?' '????'?'?', '????' '???'???' '? , ?? ????' ??????' ????????, ????? ??'???'??. ????? : ?'???' ? '?? ??????, '? ?? ?'???? ?'?? ??????' '????'???? '???, ??'??, ???, ???????'? ?.?.???''?? ?' ''???????: ?+??'???' (??: Hocket t ?. F. The View from Language, 1977). '????'??' ? ????????, ??' '.'??'', ?' ?'? '??????? ????, ??? ??'?'?? ?? '?, '? ?'?? ??????'? ??? '???, ??'???? ?? ?'?'??? ? ?'?' ????' ?????'???'. ?? ??'?' ?? ??????, ?? ? ???' ???'? ???''?? ??+?''? '??? '???'???', ?? ? '???? ?????'??' '??? '????', ?? ? ??' +''? ?'?'?  ?+%? ' ????''???''???? ? ?'''?'?'???? ?'?, ?? ?' '??? ????. ???? ??'?, '? ?? ?'?'?+?? '? ?' +''? '''? ? '????'?; ???% ??'??? ?' ?'? '???'??', ?' ????? ? ?'???? ???' ????, ???'?? ?? ????. '?' ?+%? ?????? ???'?' ? '??, ???'?''??? ' '????'? ???????? ?+??' ???'??? ???'?????? '???, ' ?? ?????'?' '????'?'?' ?????'?' ???''????? '?, '  ? '??? ?'? ??'?'?? '??'???????', ??????%??? ??? '???. ??, ???'??, ???????? ?????, '? ???'?'?' ???'??? ???'?????? '??? ' ?? ?'??' ???'? '??. ??.: Explaining Linguistic Phenomena I D.Cohen (ed.), 1974; Testing Linguistic Hypotheses I D.Cohen, J.Wirth (eds.), 1975. ?+?' ??'?'??? '?? ???? ?'???'?? ?????? ?' ?? ??????? ?' ???? ???: Chomsky N. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, 1965. ??. '? ??'' 4 5 ?: Putnam H. Philosophical Papers. V. 2, 1975.

18 ?? ?'???'? ??'?, ??'? ? ??'?' + ????? ?+?%? ???????? ? ? ????????' ?' ''???'?? '?? ????', ? '? '?+' ? ??'?'? ?????'?? ???? ???? ? ?-'? ???'?''???. ??. ??????? ??? ?.'?????? ?.?'????? ? 'Synthese', ???'???? ?: Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science I R.S.Cohen, W.M.Wartofsky (eds.). V. 3, 1967, '? ???'?????? ?'?' ????????, ????' ??'??'? ?: Language and Philosophy l S.Hook (ed.), 1969 (?? ?????' ???? ????: ??'???) ???'??'? ?: Chomsky N. Language and Mind. ??. '?: Edgley R. Innate Ideas // Knowledge and Necessity I G.Vesey (ed.), 1970; Cooper D. Philosophy and the Nature of Language, 1973; Cooper D. Knowledge of Language, 1975; Innate Ideas I S.P.Stich (ed.), 1975; Chomsky N. Rules and Representations, 1980; Linguistic Theory and Psychological Reality I M.Halle et al. (eds.), 1980.

' ???'???? ?????? ??'''?? ? ??:?'?? ?.?.'??'. ? +?' ????? ??'?????? ? ?+'?' ????'???? ??:?'?? ?'???'??: Gregory R. Eye and Brain, 1966; '???? ???' ?'?? ????????. ?????? '? ???'?' ?'??'?? ?'? ??????'??': ??'????? ??

????? 153

??:?'????'?. ??., ? ?????: Fodor J., Bever T., Garreit M. The Psychology of Language, 1974 ' Derwing B. Transformational Grammar as a Theory of Language Acquisition, 1973. '?????'? ??? ??:?'??? '????'??? ? ?'' ???????? ?'??? ?: Fodor J.A. The Language of Thought, 1975. ??? ??:?'???? ?+?' ?'?'? ??'??? ???????? ??'?'?? ?. ? ?????? ??? ? ?????? ??.: Piatelli-Palmarini M. Theories de Langage, 1979 (??'???? ????? ??? ???? 'Language and Learning', 1980). ?'?'??'??' ??'??' ? ????? ?'? ??.: Language Acquisition I P.Fletcher, M.Garman (eds.), 1979; Wexler K., Culicover P. W. Formal Principles of Language Acquisition, 1980; Language Acquisition I E.Wanner, L.R.Gleitman (eds.), 1983.

19 ?+ ?????'???? ????'?, ? ??'? ?????, ??.: Bach E. Syntactic Theory, 1974 Universals in Linguistic Theory I E.Bach, R.Harms (eds.), 1968.

''? -

1 -'?' ?????? ?'?' ????? ??????. '?'????'?? ?'??': '??'??? ???':????????? '????'?, ??'?? '?: ???%: ????'?''?, ?? '. '??'', '.'.????', ?.?.???'', ?.'.?'???, '??? ???'?' ??'??? ???'??. ' ??'? ????? ? : ??'????? ??. ?''?, ??'???' ?: Semantics / D.D.Steinberg, L.A.Jakobovits (eds.), 1971, ?? '? ????'?'?' ???'??' ??'?? ?????'' ? ??? ????????. ??. '?: Formal Semantics of Natural Language I E.L.Keenan (ed.), 1975; Semantic Syntax I P.Seuren (ed.), 1974. ?????? ?'???', '? ???? ????'???' '? ??????' ????' ?'? '????'????? :??'?. ??.: Chomsky N. Reflections on Language, 1976. ?? ??????'' ? ?'?' ??'??', '? ??????, ?'???? ?'?, ?????????? ???????', '? ?? (??????'') +'???'??. ? ?????'?'? ???????? ???? ? ??'?, ?????? - ?'? ? : ????? ''???'???' ??.: Dougherty R.?. Harris and Chomsky at the Syntax-Semantics Boundary// Contemporary research in Philosophical Logic and Linguistic Semantics I D.Hockney, W.Harper, B.Freed (eds.), 1975.

2 '.'.????? ???'??' ???? ??? ??????%? ????'?? ???????'?'? ? '???? ? ??.: Fodor J.D. Semantics, 1977; '.'.? ???'??' : ???? ? ''???'???? '????? ? ??.: Katz J.J. Semantic Theory, 1972 ? '??? ??'? ? ??.: Katz J.J. Propositional Structure and Illocutionary Force, 1977. ?+%? ?+??, ??'????? ? ???? ?'??' ?????'? ? +?' ''???'??: ???':, ??. ? ??.: Lyons J. Semantics. V. 1-2,1977. '?' ?????'????? ????' ??????'? ++'???'??? ?'?' ?+?' .?.??????: Kempson R. M. Semantics, 1977. ??. '?: Moravcsik J.M.E. Understanding Language, 1975. ????'?? ????????

154 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

????? ??? ?.: Nida ?.A. Componential Analysis of Meaning, 1975. ??. '?: Meaning and Translation I F.Guenthner, M.Guenthner-Reutter (eds.), 1978. ???:?? ? ????? ??'??'?? ?: Bar-Hillel Y. Aspects of Language, 1970. ??. '?: Ba?erle R. et al. Semantics from Different Points of View, 1979. ????'??? ????? ??'?'?? ???????? ????? ???'?, ?'?'?? ? ??.: Processes, Beliefs and Questions I S.Peters, E.Saarinen (eds.), 1981. ??. '?: Meaning and Understanding I H.Parret, J.Bouveresse (eds.), 1981. ? ?'??? ?????? ?' ? '?????'? '????? ???+'?? ???''??'???' '? ???, ??: Gushing S. Quantifier Meanings, 1982. ??. '?: The Monist (1977); Philosophy and Grammar I S.Kanger, S.-hman (eds.), 1980. Co ???? ????'?? ?+?'' '.'.? ?.???'' '??'???????? '??? '????'??: ??????' (Katz J. J., P. Postal. An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions, 1964), ?? ???????' ???''? ? ?'?????? ??: ??+?''? ??'?? ???????? '??, '? ???'???? ?'???'? ?'??' ???'?'? ? ?'?+??'? ?'???'???, ? ?':' ??'???'? ???? ? '??, ???? ' ?'? ??''?, ?' ?? ?'? ?''??? '?'?? ? ??.: Newmeyer F.J. Linguistic Theory in America, 1980. ???''? ???'? ???'??, ? ????? ?'????', ? '?????, ? ?????? ?'????', ? ???'??'??? ????'?'?' ? ???: ?+????:: Development in Semantics l R.Stern, A.Orenstein (eds.), 1981 Leblanc H. et al. Essays in Epistemology and Semantics, 1981. ????'?? ? ?????? ???'??' ?'??': ????????, ??'??' ?+????'?? ? ???'???%: ?'??:, ??.: Baker G.P., Hacker P.M. Language, Sense and Nonsense, 1984.

3 ?'?' ? ??. ?: Katz J.J. Logic and Language // Language, Mind and Knowledge I K.Gunderson (ed.), 1975. ??. '?: Harmon G. Meaning and Semantics // Semantics and Philosophy I M.Munitz, P.Unger (eds.), 1974. ' ???: ???'??: ?+?': ? ?'???' ??''?'??? ???:?? ? ??'?? '?''?-??'?????'. ??.: KatzJ.J. Language and Other Abstract Objects, 1981. '???? ?''? ''???'??? ?? '????? '???' (Katz J.J. Literary Meaning and Logical Theory // JP, 1981) ?? ??'??' ? '?'??? ??'? '???, ?? '?????? '??' (??. ?). ? ????? ??. '? ???. 10 ? ?'? 5.

4 ??. '?'? '' ''???'', ?'? 17, ???. 20. ' '??  ??: ?'? ?'??? ?+???' ? '?'??? ????, ?? ? ? '??, '? ?? ??????????' '?????' ??+? ? ????????? ?+'?. ??.: Putnam H. Is Semantics Possible? // Language, Belief and Metaphysics l H.E.Kiefer, M.K.Munitz (eds.), 1970 (???? ??+'??). ' +?' ????? ?''? '-?? '???'' (Putman H. Meaning of 'Meaning' // Language, Mind and Knowledge I K.Gunderson (ed.), 1975) ?? ?????? +?' +'????'???? ?'???'??, ?? ????? ??, ? ???'????? '??????-?'''?', ?? '??, '? ? ?? ?' ?: ?'?'??. (?+ ???????'' ?''? ?'??? ???? ??' ? ?+.: Putnam H. Philosophical Papers. V. 2, 1975). ?+?'

????? 155

??'?'??? ???''? ?'??'? ???:?? ? ????'????? ?'? ? ?? '?+'?????? ?'?' ????'?'? ?: Rundle '. Grammar in Philosophy, 1979. ?'?'? ??? ???+??'''???? ??? ?'? ' ?: Times Literary Supplement, March 7, 1980. ' ??? ''??? ? ''???'? ?'?' (Harrison '. Introduction to the Philosophy of Language, 1979) '???? ?????? ?'?'?' ?????'???'??????? ???:?? ? ?'??, ??????? ??'??? ?' ??????? ???? ???????': '?'??'??': ?? ???:????. ? '?? ???, '? ???''????? ''???'' ????'??? ?'?'???'??' ??? : ?+?'' ???????? ? ???'???'?? ? ?? ?+?'?, ????'?'? ? ??.: Baker G., Hacker P. Frege, 1980. ??. '?: Hintikka J. Semantics: a Revolt against Frege // Contemporary Philosophy I G.F10istad (ed.), 1981.

5 ?? +?' ''???'?? ?''? +'' ??+??' .?.???????? ???+'????' ??? ???? '????'??? ''???'?' (Montague R. Formal Philosophy / R.H.Thomason (ed.), 1974) ? ??? ??'?'? ????? ++'???'?. '.??' ????'?' ???? ??? ???'?? ?????? ? ??? ?''??, ? ?+?' ??'??? ?? ?' ? ?''?: Parie '. Montague Grammar and Transformational Grammar // Par tee B. Linguistic Inquiry, 1975. ??. '? ?''?, ??+???' ? ???' ? ?+.: Partee '. Montague Grammar, 1976, ???+??? ???? ???+'? ? ?'?? ???: Hamblin ?. L. Questions in Montague English. ?+???? ??'???? ???'?? ??? ? ??.: Approaches to Natural Language I K.J.Hintikka (ed.), 1973; Moravcsik J.M.E. Understanding Language, 1975. ??. '? '?? ?? ???'?? ?: Stegmuller W. Hauptstrumungen der Gegenwarts-philosophie. V. 2, 1975, a ??'??? : ??? ?? ? ?''?: Martin R. M. Why I am not a Montague Grammarian // Martin R.M. Pragmatics, Truth and Language, 1979. ??. '?: Hintikka J. On the Proper Treatment of Quantifiers in Montague Semantics // Logical Theory and Semantic Analysis I S.Stenlund (ed.), 1974. '?' ?''??? ?'??'???' ???'???? ? ??: ???'?? ??.: Cresswell M.J. Logics and Languages, 1973. ??. '?: Linguistics, Philosophy and Montague Grammar I S.Davis, M.Mithun (eds.), 1979; Link G. Montague-Grammatik, 1979.

?''?, ??'???' ? ?+???? '????'??? ???'? ?'?'?????? ?'?' ??? ??. ?.'.??? (Formal Semantics of Natural Language I E.L.Keenan (ed.), 1975), ?:?''??' ????? ???? ???+'? ? ?'?? ?+'?', ?? ????' ??'?? '?? ???'??. ??. '?: Philosophy and Grammar I S.Kanger, S.Uhman (eds.), 1980; Formal Semantics and Pragmatics for Natural Languages I F.Guenthner, S.J.Schmidt (eds.), 1979; Przelecki M. A Model-Theoretic Approach to the Problem of Interpretation of Empirical Languages // Twenty Five Years of Logical Methodology in Poland / M.Przelecki, R.Wojcicki (eds.), 1977. '??? ? ?'' ?+?? ??.: Dowty D. et. al. Introduction to Montague Semantics, 1981. ???'? ???'?? ???? ? '?? ???, ? ???? ?? :?'', '?+' ?? ???''?': 213 ?'?? ? ?''? ?

156 '?? ??????. ???????' ''???''

24 ?'??', ?' ?? ? ?+?' '?': Dowty D. Guide to Montague's PTQ, 1978. ?? ? ? ?'?? ?'? ?'? ?'? +??' '??'??? ? '?? ??????'?? '?'. ??. '?: Cocchiarella N. Richard Montague// Contemporary Philosophy I G.F10istad (ed.), 1981. ???? '???, ?? ? '????'? +'' ?+????' ???:??' ???????? ???'??, ??.: Cooper R. Quantification and Syntactic Theory, 1983. +?'' ???'?? ??? ????? ?+????'?? ? ''??, '?''??, '? ? -????? '???. ?? ?'? ?'? ?'?'?? ? +?' ??'??': ??': ''???', +?'??? ?'?? ?'? ?+???? ????:??' ? '??? ??????'????': '??'?? ???'???, ? ? ?? ??? ' ?''?. ?'?'??'??'?, ?'? ?'???'??'? ???:?? ??.: Bealer G. Quality and Concept, 1982.

6 -' ?''?? ?'??? ? ??' ?'?' ? ???' Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1951). ?? ???? ? ?+.: Fodor J.A., Katz J.J. The Structure of Language, 1964. ??. '? ??? ? ? ''??? ? ???'??' ???? ? ???' PR 1943?. ????'? ?''? ?? ? ??' '?? ?'?? ? ????????? ''???'?,

? ??'???? ???? ' ???? +''? ?????'?'?, ?''?? : ?'? ???. ?? '??? ?+?' ??'?? ?'????'???? ?: Church A. An Introduction to Mathematical Logic, 1956. '??'?? '?????? ? ?+?' '??'? ??' (Davidson D. Truth and Meaning // Synthese, 1967) ?'??' ?????'??, '? '???'???? ???'?? ???? ??????'??'? ? ?'?'???' ?'?, ?? ?'? ??'' ??? ?????? ? ?? ????+'???????, ?? ????? ???'?????? ?+?': Parsons ?. A Semantics for English, 1968. ???''? ??+?''? '???? '?: '?'?: ????'?', ?? '?'????', ????'?'? ?: Lakoff G. Hedges // Contemporary Research in Philosophical Logic and Linguistic Semantics I D.Hockney et al. (eds.), 1975, ? ???+'?????': '?  ?????'??: '.?.?? ?????. ?????+?? '?? ???? ? ?'? ???+'?'?? ??? ?: Fraassen '. ?. Van Formal Semantics and Logic, 1971. ??. '? ?+?'' '.-?, ? ?'???' ?? ?''?? ? ?+.: Language and Ontology I W.Leinfellner et al. (eds.), 1982. ?'?' ?' ?''?? ??'?'?? ??'??? ???'??. ' ?? ????'?? ++'???'? '????? -?. '?' ?+%?? '??'???? ?''??', ?????'????' '.?. ??. ?: Scheffler I. Beyond the Letter, 1979, '? ???. 22 ? ?'? 1. ?? ??????????: ?''?? ?? ?'?? '? ???? ??' ? ?+.: Approaching Vagueness I T.T.Ballmer, M.Pinkal (eds.), 1983. ??. '?: Aspects of Vagueness 1 H.J.Skala et. al. (eds.), 1984.

7 ??. ???. 9 10 ? ?'? 17 '?' '' ''???''. ?? ??????? '??? ???+??? ??'? +'' ?+?'' ?.?.?????. ??.: Prior A.N. Time and Modality, 1957, '? ?+???? ?? ?''?, ???+'?????' ???' ?? ?????????? ???': Prior A.N. Past, Present and Future, 1967; Prior A.N.. Papers on Time and Tense, 1968; Prior A.N. Objects of Thought, 1976; Prior A.N. Doctrine of Propositions and Terms, 1976; Prior A.N. Papers in

????? 157

Logic and Ethics, 1976; Prior A.N. Worlds, Times and Selves, 1977. ?+%?? ???? ?+?' ????? ??. ? ????'??, ??????? -.??? (Proceedings of the British Academy, 1970). ' ?+%? ???' ??.: Rescher N., A. Urquart. Temporal Logic, 1971. ???'?? ????'?? ?? ??????? ?+ ?'???? ??? ?????'? '???? ???'????? '??? ???? ? ?'?'???': ?'?:. ??., ? ?'???': Gabbay D.M. Investigations in Modal and Tense Logics, 1976 ??'???? ??? '.?.'???? ? ?'? ?+?'? ?: International Studies in Philosophy, 1978. '.'?' ? ?+?' '-?? ?'?? ????'? ???'??' (Dowty D. Word Meaning and Montague Grammar, 1979) ??????' ?+% ????? ????'? ???'?? ????'? ? ?'' ???????? ?'???''??? ????'??: ???? ?'??'??. ???? ? '?'?? ?+??'' (Quine W. V. O. Word and Object, 1960) ?'?'?' '?' :??'??'? ?'? ??? ??'??, '? +'????? ???'????? '?: ?????, ?? ''?? ? ????' ???? /', ? ???: ?'?????? '??? ???? ??'? ?????' ?'? ???% ?' ?: ???????. ?????, ? ??'????? ????? ?'?? ??'?' ??'??? '???, ?'??'?? ????'? ???' ?'?????? '???. ???? '?